Polychlorinated biphenyls in the surficial sediment of Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal, Lake Michigan

Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
Environment international (Impact Factor: 5.66). 11/2010; DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2009.01.015

ABSTRACT We report the results of the first intensive survey of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the surficial sediment of the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) in East Chicago, Indiana, a part of the Calumet River tributary of Lake Michigan that will be dredged to maintain depth for ship traffic. The tributary has previously been reported to be a large source of PCBs to Lake Michigan. PCB congeners were measured using tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode, a method that provides a high level selectivity and sensitivity for PCBs in complex environmental samples. The PCB concentrations (sum of 163 congeners or coeluting peaks) range from 53 to 35,000 ng g− 1 dry weight (d.w.) and are comparable to other PCB concentrations at contaminated tributaries in the United States, most of them (although not IHSC) established by law as Superfund sites. The PCB congener signal strongly resembles the original technical mixture Aroclor 1248 that has experienced a small amount of weathering — less than 2.5% by mass for the statistically different congeners — consistent with desorption, volatilization, and microbial dechlorination. The origin of the PCBs in IHSC is not known but Aroclor 1248 was used in hydraulic fluids, vacuum pumps, plasticizers and adhesives. Possible uses of this mixture in East Chicago included the equipment and auxiliary services for the adjacent steel mill and gas refinery and/or lubrication for the drawbridges spanning the canal.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant is in the early stages of decommissioning and decontamination. During operations, the site drew a large amount of electric power and had multiple large switchyards on site. These are a source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination to both on-site and off-site streams. Some soil remediation has been completed in the main switchyard. During 2011 and 2012, fifteen sites were sampled at the surface (<10 cm) and subsurface (20–30 cm) to characterize the extent of PCB contamination, to identify weathering and migration of PCB contamination and to explore potential polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) contamination due to transformer fires and explosions in the 1950s and 1960s. Stagnant sites tended to exhibit more migration of contamination to deeper sediments than sites with fast-moving waters, and the highest concentrations were found at the bottom of a settling pond. A signature set of five dioxin-like PCBs were consistently found across the site with higher concentrations in carbon rich surface sediments. PCB concentrations had a significant inverse correlation with clay content, suggesting that PCBs did not bind to clays at this site. Remediation has reduced PCB concentrations throughout the site compared to levels found in previous studies and long-term upkeep of sediment lagoons is necessary to retain PCB and dioxin-rich sediments. The flow regimen, organic carbon and clay content play a very important role in the fate of PCBs in the environment at the surface as well as downward migration.
    Chemosphere 11/2014; 114:93–100. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.03.092 · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The levels of PAHs, PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in Lake Baikal were monitored for the first time using deep water sediment. The sediment samples were collected from 15 stations in four regions of Lake Baikal: Ol’khon Island (n = 8), the Angara River estuary (n = 2), the Selenga River delta (n = 2), and the Baikal pulp and paper mill (BPPM) (n = 3). The highest average concentrations of PCDD/Fs (20.24 pg/g d.w.) and PCBs (68.72 ng/g d.w.) were found at Ol’khon Island. The highest total PBDE concentrations were found at BPPM, with a mean concentration of 575.76 pg/g d.w. For PCBs, PCB-52, and PCB-69 were dominant, making up 11% of the total 209 PCB congeners. BDE-209 contributed 60% of PBDEs in Lake Baikal. According to the TPEQ concentration of PAHs, PAHs contributed the most to Lake Baikal contamination. The sources of contamination of PAHs, PCDDs, and PCBs in Lake Baikal are identified as combustion, runoff from the use of the pesticides (PCP) and insulating oil, specifically for PCBs. The source of PBDEs is assumed to be production, use and disposal of products containing PBDEs, in addition to atmospheric long-range transport and deposition.
    Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 03/2013; 33(2). DOI:10.1080/10406638.2013.764540 · 0.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 25 surface sediments in three cities (Nantong, Wuxi, and Suzhou) in the Yangtze River Delta, eastern China were measured. The mean concentrations were 378, 45.8, 1.98, 4,002 ng/g for PBDEs, OCPs, PCBs, and PAHs, respectively. Their levels in the sediments in the three cities were generally consistent with the city industrialization. PBDEs and OCPs were markedly dominated by deca-BDE (>90 %) and DDTs (>70 %). A principle component analysis of the analytes identified three major factors suggesting different sources of the contaminants in the sediments. PBDEs and the organic carbon in the sediments have common sources from industrial activities; whereas OCPs and PCBs, correlated with the second factor, were mainly from historical sources. The third factor with loadings of PAHs is indicative of various combustion sources. Ecological risk assessment indicated that the potential highest risk is from DDTs, for which 22 sites exceed the effects range low (ERL) values and three sites exceed the effects range median (ERM) value.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 05/2014; 186(8). DOI:10.1007/s10661-014-3777-7 · 1.68 Impact Factor