Violence against transgender people: A review of United States data

University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, United States
Aggression and Violent Behavior 01/2009; DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2009.01.006

ABSTRACT Transgender people face many challenges in a society that is unforgiving of any system of gender that is not binary. However, there are three primary sources of data in the United States for discerning the rates and types of violence that transgender people face throughout their lives — self-report surveys and needs assessments, hot-line call and social service records, and police reports. Data from each of these sources are discussed in length, as well as some of the methodological issues for these types of data sources. All three sources indicate that violence against transgender people starts early in life, that transgender people are at risk for multiple types and incidences of violence, and that this threat lasts throughout their lives. In addition, transgender people seem to have particularly high risk for sexual violence. Future research considerations, such as improving data collection efforts, are discussed.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Europe, 71 murders resulting in the death of a transgender person were reported between 2008 and 2013, 20 of which perpetrated in Italy, the second highest rate in Europe after Turkey. We retrospectively analyzed the homicides of transgender people recorded at the Medico-legal Bureau in Milan from January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2012. First we considered the socio-demographic data of the deceased and the circumstantial details of their deaths, then we examined the data related to the cause of death recorded in the autopsy reports. Our case series consisted of 20 homicides. Our data show that victims are mostly immigrants, biological males presenting with a feminine attire and with varying degrees of feminization. The large majority of the victims were sex workers from South America. As for murderers, they were unknown in 7 cases (35%); all the 13 murderers identified were males, aged between 17 and 63 (mean age: 31 years). In 38% of the cases, the murderer was the victim’s current or former partner. For half of the homicides it was possible to identify at least one primary indicator of LGBT hate crime. Our findings call for the need to make explicit in Italian legislation that a crime perpetrated on the ground of sexual orientation and gender identity constitutes a hate crime.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence 01/2015; · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This literature review examines research exploring the interactions between transgender people and law enforcement and criminal justice (LECJ) personnel in the U.S. to better understand the experiences of transgender people who come into contact with the criminal justice system. A search of existing academic literature, public health reports, and advocacy group publications revealed 33 studies that contained information about transgender people’s interactions with LECJ personnel. Results highlight how large percentages of transgender people experience arrest and incarceration, unjustified stops and arrest, disrespect and poor case handling, and abuse and violence from LECJ enforcement personnel while in their communities. Large percentages of transgender people in institutional settings also reported abuse committed by criminal justice personnel, including harassment, assault, and a lack of protection from other inmates. This review also highlights evidence of discriminatory and abusive treatment when transgender victims seek assistance from the legal system. Taken together, this study suggests a need for further work to de-stigmatize the legal and criminal justice systems.
    Aggression and Violent Behavior 05/2014; · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While recent research on transgender populations has demonstrated high rates of experiencing violence, there has been little research attention to the mental health implications of these experiences. This study utilized data collected from the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Survey (THIS) of transgender people (individuals who described their gender identity as different from their sex assigned at birth) collected from 2005–2006. Current study analyses were limited to two subgroups: trans women (n = 179) and trans men (n = 92). We hypothesized that, as in the general population, exposure to physical and sexual violence would be related to suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and substance abuse. Both trans women and trans men in this sample were at high risk for physical and sexual violence, as well as suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Logistic regression analyses indicated that among both trans women and trans men, those who had endured physical and/or sexual violence were significantly more likely than those who had not had such experiences to report a history of suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts. In addition, among trans men, history of physical and sexual violence were each related to alcohol abuse. Among trans women, history of sexual violence was related to alcohol abuse and illicit substance use. Patterns of violence against transgender people were identified and are discussed, including frequent gender-related motivation for violence, low prevalence of reporting violence to police, and variety of perpetrators of violence. Clinical implications and recommendations are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Professional Psychology Research and Practice 01/2012; 43(5):452. · 1.34 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 16, 2014