Influence of day and night temperature on the growth of young tomato plants

Agricultural University, Department of Horticulture, P.O. Box 30, 6700 AA Wageningen The Netherlands
Scientia Horticulturae (Impact Factor: 1.5). 02/1989; 38(1-2):11-22. DOI: 10.1016/0304-4238(89)90015-0

ABSTRACT Young tomato plants were grown at different day and night temperature combinations with an average of 21°C. Some combinations with a different average 24-h temperature were included. Day temperature (Td) varied between 16 and 26°C, night temperature (Tn) between 12 and 26°C, while the daylength was 12h. Light intensity was about 26 W m−2 photosynthetic active radiation (PAR).An inversed temperature regime (Td lower than Tn) reduced plant growth (fresh weight, FW; dry weight, DW) and development (number of leaves, number of trusses). Reduction in development was less than reduction in growth. Growth reduction was caused by a lowering of the leaf area ratio (LAR). The decrease in LAR at an inversed temperature regime was caused mainly by a decrease in specific leaf area (SLA). Net assimilation rate (NAR) was not influenced by the temperature regime. For young widely spaced plants a lower SLA (thicker leaves) results in less light interception and thus in growth reduction.It is possible now to explain the different reactions on temperature regime at the same temperature intergral between young plants and closed canopies. In a closed canopy (a producing crop) differences in leaf area index, brought about by differences in leaf thickness, have hardly any influence on light interception because most light has been already intercepted anyway. This explains why a producing crop, in contrast to young plants, shows hardly any reaction to temperature regime at the same temperature integral.A regression analysis indicated that for FW and DW, plant length, leaf area (A), number of leaves, number of trusses, relative growth rate (RGR), LAR and SLA, Td is more important than Tn.

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    • "Day and night temperatures can be manipulated to control plant height in ornamental plants. For many species, warmer day than night temperature promotes stem elongation more than constant or cooler day than night temperatures (Heuvelink, 1989; Erwin et al., 1989; Moe, 1990; Al-Said, 2000). This was also found to be true in this study for cauliflower. "
    Pakistan Journal of Botany 01/2013; 45(2):411-420. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    • "The DIF concept was introduced by Erwin et al. (1989) and has since become widely used for growth control in greenhouse production of ornamental plants. A negative DIF treatment often results in reduced total plant dry weight as compared with a positive DIF (Heuvelink, 1989; Myster et al., 1997; Xiong et al., 2002). Gibberellins (GAs) are hormones contributing to the control of growth and development of plants throughout their life cycle and have been known for decades for their strong growth-promoting effect on stems. "
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    ABSTRACT: Active gibberellin (GA(1)) is an important mediator of thermoperiodic growth in pea. Plants grown under lower day than night temperature (negative DIF) elongate less and have reduced levels of GA(1) compared with plants grown at higher day than night temperature (positive DIF). By comparing the wild type (WT) and the elongated DELLA mutant la cry(s), this study has examined the effect of impaired GA signalling on thermoperiodic growth, photosynthesis, and respiration in pea. In the WT a negative DIF treatment reduced stem mass ratio and increased both root mass ratio and leaf mass ratio (dry weight of specific tissue related to total plant dry weight). Leaf, root and stem mass ratios of la cry(s) were not affected by DIF. Under negative DIF, specific leaf area (projected leaf area per unit leaf dry mass), biomass, and chlorophyll content of WT and la cry(s) plants were reduced. Young, expanding leaves of plants grown under negative DIF had reduced leaf area-based photosynthetic capacity. However, the highest photosynthetic electron transport rate was found in fully expanded leaves of WT plants grown under negative DIF. Negative DIF increased night respiration and was similar for both genotypes. It is concluded that GA signalling is not a major determinant of leaf area-based photosynthesis or respiration and that reduced dry weight of plants grown under negative DIF is caused by a GA-mediated reduction of photosynthetic stem and leaf tissue, reduced photosynthesis of young, expanding leaves, and reduced growth caused by low temperature in the photoperiod.
    Journal of Experimental Botany 03/2010; 61(4):1015-29. DOI:10.1093/jxb/erp366 · 5.79 Impact Factor
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    • "In a study carried out in eggplant it was observed that NAR increased as the temperature rose and declined with time. However, this increase in the plant grown at 30 o C reached the maximum value of 0.15 g cm -2 day -1 and then as the temperature decreased to 16 o C it reached the value of 0.03 g cm -2 day -1 (Heuvelink 1989). Both in this study and in other similar studies, the increased NAR depending on time in the first periods of plant growth was slower at low temperature than at high temperature. "
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in plant growth viz. leaf area, leaf weight ratio, root weight ratio, dry leaf weight, dry root weight, total plant dry weight, specific leaf area, leaf thickness, leaf area ratio, net assimilation rate and relative growth rate due to the effects of environmental conditions such as temperature and light intensity were described by plant growth models. All equations produced for growth parameters were affected by light intensity and temperature. From multi-regression analysis, close relationships were found between actual and predicted growth parameters. The regression coefficients (r²) of the equations for growth parameters varied from 0.95 to 0.99 for cultivar Ecdogelb and 0.83 to 0.99 for cultivar Ecdorot, respectively. Introduction Fodder beet is successively grown as a fodder crop in the coastal regions of many European countries. The crop is used as a valuable source of food for cattle (Niazi et al. 2000). Due to its higher water and sugar contents, it increases milk production and is a suitable forage for dairy cows. The fodder beet is usually fed as chopped and mixed with straw. Environmental factors such as climate and soil affect plant growth and development. It will be useful to know minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures and light intensity required for plant growth and development (Arechiga and Carlos 2000, Hakansson et al. 2002), since these factors determine plant species which will be grown productively in a region. Leaf area is an important determinant of plant growth rate during early phases of development (Brown and Byrd 1996). Leaf weight ratio is the ratio of total leaf weight to total plant weight. Slow growing species may accumulate considerable amounts of secondary compounds like lignin and phenolics, which increase the dry weight of the leaves. The higher the specific leaf area, the thicker the leaf (Coughenour et al. 1984, Opitz von Boberfeld 1994). Specific leaf area was negatively correlated with high light intensity and positively with temperature (Evans 1989). Light intensity affects dry matter contents of the plants, and increasing light intensity decreases leaf area ratio (Picken et al. 1986). Net assimilation rate is one of the most important growth parameters. This describes the net production efficiency of the assimilatory apparatus (Bruggink and Heuvelink 1987). Relative growth rate means the dry weight increase in a time interval in relation to initial weight (Gardner et al. 1994). Plant species may differ considerably in relative growth rate. This may be caused by habitat-related variation in abiotic factors, like temperature, water, light and nutrients, or by biotic factors like competition and diseases (Poorter 1989). Warmer temperatures accelerate development and early growth but have a negative effect on final biomass, probably due to canopy senescence and increase in maintenance respiration (Demmers-Derks et al. 1998). To date, there have been a few attempts to describe the relationship between fodder beet growth, temperature and light intensity. Additionaly those studies were carried out under limited ranges of temperature and light intensity. Therefore, this research quantitatively examined the effects of temperature and light on fodder beet growth, using a wide range of temperature and light intensity.
    Bangladesh Journal of Botany 11/2008; 36(1). DOI:10.3329/bjb.v36i1.1542 · 0.38 Impact Factor
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