The ins and outs of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling in budding yeast: Biophysical and proteomic perspectives

Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, Thormøhlensgt. 55, N-5008 Bergen, Norway
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Impact Factor: 4.66). 03/2007; DOI: 10.1016/j.bbaexp.2007.01.013

ABSTRACT ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling is performed by multi-subunit protein complexes. Over the last years, the identity of these factors has been unveiled in yeast and many parallels have been drawn with animal and plant systems, indicating that sophisticated chromatin transactions evolved prior to their divergence. Here we review current knowledge pertaining to the molecular mode of action of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, from single molecule studies to genome-wide genetic and proteomic studies. We focus on the budding yeast versions of SWI/SNF, RSC, DDM1, ISWI, CHD1, INO80 and SWR1.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The function of sperm is to safely transport the haploid paternal genome to the egg containing the maternal genome. The subsequent fertilization leads to transmission of a new unique diploid genome to the next generation. Before the sperm can set out on its adventurous journey, remarkable arrangements need to be made during the post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Haploid spermatids undergo extensive morphological changes, including a striking reorganization and compaction of their chromatin. Thereby, the nucleosomal, histone-based structure is nearly completely substituted by a protamine-based structure. This replacement is likely facilitated by incorporation of histone variants, post-translational histone modifications, chromatin-remodeling complexes, as well as transient DNA strand breaks. The consequences of mutations have revealed that a protamine-based chromatin is essential for fertility in mice but not in Drosophila. Nevertheless, loss of protamines in Drosophila increases the sensitivity to X-rays and thus supports the hypothesis that protamines are necessary to protect the paternal genome. Pharmaceutical approaches have provided the first mechanistic insights and have shown that hyperacetylation of histones just before their displacement is vital for progress in chromatin reorganization but is clearly not the sole inducer. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge on post-meiotic chromatin reorganization and reveal for the first time intriguing parallels in this process in Drosophila and mammals. We conclude with a model that illustrates the possible mechanisms that lead from a histone-based chromatin to a mainly protamine-based structure during spermatid differentiation.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.bbagrm.2013.08.004 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Affinity isolation has been an essential technique for molecular studies of cellular assemblies, such as the switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) family of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. However, even biochemically pure isolates can contain heterogeneous mixtures of complexes and their components. In particular, purification strategies that rely on affinity tags fused to only one component of a complex may be susceptible to this phenomenon. This study demonstrates that fusing purification tags to two different proteins enables the isolation of intact complexes of remodels the structure of chromatin (RSC). A Protein A tag was fused to one of the RSC proteins and a Twin-Strep tag to another protein of the complex. By mass spectrometry, we demonstrate the enrichment of the RSC complexes. The complexes had an apparent Svedberg value of about 20S, as shown by glycerol gradient ultracentrifugation. Additionally, purified complexes were demonstrated to be functional. Electron microscopy and single-particle analyses revealed a conformational rearrangement of RSC upon interaction with acetylated histone H3 peptides. This purification method is useful to purify functionally active, structurally well-defined macromolecular assemblies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins & Proteomics 12/2014; 1854(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbapap.2014.11.009 · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The packaging of the eukaryotic genome into chromatin facilitates the storage of the genetic information within the nucleus, but prevents the access to the underlying DNA sequences. Structural changes in chromatin are mediated by several mechanisms. Among them, ATP-dependent remodelling complexes belonging to ISWI family provides one of the best examples that eukaryotic cells evolved to finely regulate these changes. ISWI-containing complexes use the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to rearrange nucleosomes on chromatin in order to favour specific nuclear reactions. The combination of regulatory nuclear factors associated with the ATPase subunit as well as its modulation by specific histone modifications, specializes the nuclear function of each ISWI-containing complex. Here we review the different ways by which ISWI enzymatic activity can be modulated and regulated in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
    Chromosoma 01/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00412-013-0447-4 · 3.26 Impact Factor


Available from
May 22, 2014