Current increase in the incidence of foodborne disease outbreak in developped countries is mainly due to salmonella, especially Salmonella Enteritidis over the five last years. From environmental sources, these bacteria can originate contamination of untreated foods like eggs, meats, shellfish, as well as every link of the food chain. Most foodborne disease outbreaks due to salmonella are associated with food prepared at home. Infection results in acute but mild gastroenteritis, except in newborn and elderly patients whose death-to-case ratio is higher, especially in hospital or institution. Early epidemiological survey must be performed in every foodborne disease outbreak. Clinical, bacteriological and food data have to be carefully collected, for a computer assisted analysis. When implicated pathogen, food vehicle, source of contamination and contributing factors are identified, control measures are immediately taken to prevent recurrences. Systematic reporting of foodborne disease outbreaks is compulsory in order to implement a national epidemiological surveillance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seventy selected strains of Salmonella typhimurium and S. enteritidis isolated from related poultry flocks in three independent geographical areas were characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods to compare the usefulness of the methods in epidemiological studies. The 56 S. typhimurium isolates were poorly discriminated by their biotypes, resistance patterns, and plasmid profiles. Nine different ribotypes were obtained after DNA digestion by BglII, PvuII, and SmaI. Seven IS200 types, characterized by six to nine copies of IS200 on the chromosome, were detected after digestion of genomic DNA by PstI. These studies resulted in the definition of 15 clonal lineages distributed in three clusters. The 14 S. enteritidis strains were not discriminated either by ribotyping or by detection of IS200 (IS200 typing), but were separated on the basis of antibiotic resistance and plasmid profiling. The stability of the insertion sequence type was confirmed by inoculation of an S. typhimurium strain to axenic chickens reared for 15 weeks in sterile isolators.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 02/1995; 33(1):173-9. · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective study of the antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonellae and Shigellae isolated in France during 1994 was carried out by the Collège de Bactériologie, Virologie et Hygiène des Hôpitaux de France. The results of 2 800 susceptibility tests were provided by 76 centres representative of the french territory. This study reveals the frequency of high-level resistance among certain isolates, such as 1 093 strains of S. typhimurium to aminopenicillins, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol or cotrimoxazole, whereas others, like S. enteritidis (1 016 strains), showed practically no resistance. Some antibiotics can therefore no longer be used as first line therapy against bacteremia due to Salmonella.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Discrimination of 70 Salmonella strains previously studied by ribotyping was realized by RAPD and ERIC-PCR analysis. RAPD results on the 56 S. typhimurium isolates did not closely match those of ribotyping. With ERIC-PCR, two fingerprints only were obtained. For the 14 S. enteritidis strains, a helpful discrimination was obtained with RAPD analysis, while ERIC-PCR resulted in a single fingerprint.
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