Antidepressant activity of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa in mice

Institute of Functional Biomolecule, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
Journal of Ethnopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3). 12/2002; 83(1-2):161-165. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00211-8


Curcuma longa (turmeric) is a well-known indigenous herbal medicine. The aqueous extracts, when administered orally to the mice from 140 to 560 mg/kg for 14 days, were able to elicit dose-dependent relation of immobility reduction in the tail suspension test and the forced swimming test in mice. The effects of the extracts at the dose of 560 mg/kg were more potent than that of reference antidepressant fluoxetine. The extracts, at the dose of 140 mg/kg or above for 14 days, significantly inhibited the monoamine oxidize A (MAO) activity in mouse whole brain at a dose-dependent manner, however, oral administration of the extract only at a dose of 560 mg/kg produced observable MAO B inhibitory activity in animal brain. Fluoxetine showed only a tendency to inhibit MAO A and B activity in animal brain in the study. Neither the extracts of C. longa nor fluoxetine, at the doses tested, produced significant effects on locomotor activity. These results demonstrated that C. longa had specifically antidepressant effects in vivo. The activity of C. longa in antidepression may mediated in part through MAO A inhibition in mouse brain.

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    • "Turmeric is specifically known for its wound healing and antiinflammatory properties (Aggarwal et al., 2007; Krishnaswamy, 2008), which makes it useful in a variety of diseases, particularly AD and cancers. Turmeric is a well-studied spice, and multiple studies have validated its list of medicinal uses, which include being an antioxidant (Sreejayan and Rao, 1997), antiinflammatory (Ammon and Wahl, 1991; Brouet and Ohshima, 1995), anticarcinogenic (Aggarwal and Sung, 2009; Azuine and Bhide, 1992), hepatoprotective (Kiso et al., 1983), thrombosuppressive (Srivastava et al., 1985), cardioprotective and anti-ischemic (Dikshit et al., 1995; Nirmala and Puvanakrishnan, 1996; Venkatesan, 1998), vasodilator (Gilani et al., 2005), antispasmodic and bronchodilator (Gilani et al., 2005), antidepressant (Yu et al., 2002), neuroprotective (Rajakrishnan et al., 1999), hypoglycemic (Arun and Nalini, 2002; Babu and Srinivasan, 1995; Srinivasan, 1972), and anti-arthritic (Deodhar et al., 1980) and being effective in AD (Shytle et al., 2012). These listed studies indicate that turmeric has immense potential in multiple pathological states. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. There is limited choice in modern therapeutics, and drugs available have limited success with multiple side effects in addition to high cost. Hence, newer and alternate treatment options are being explored for effective and safer therapeutic targets to address AD. Turmeric possesses multiple medicinal uses including treatment for AD. Curcuminoids, a mixture of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, are vital constituents of turmeric. It is generally believed that curcumin is the most important constituent of the curcuminoid mixture that contributes to the pharmacological profile of parent curcuminoid mixture or turmeric. A careful literature study reveals that the other two constituents of the curcuminoid mixture also contribute significantly to the effectiveness of curcuminoids in AD. Therefore, it is emphasized in this review that each component of the curcuminoid mixture plays a distinct role in making curcuminoid mixture useful in AD, and hence, the curcuminoid mixture represents turmeric in its medicinal value better than curcumin alone. The progress in understanding the disease etiology demands a multiple-site-targeted therapy, and the curcuminoid mixture of all components, each with different merits, makes this mixture more promising in combating the challenging disease. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 04/2014; 28(4). DOI:10.1002/ptr.5030 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    • "Phytochemical analysis indicated that Ajwain (Trachiyspirum ammi) contains two phenolic compounds which are responsible for antiseptic, antibacterial, and antifungal properties (Treas and Evans, 2002). Several reports also indicated the pharmacological activities of turmeric such as antioxidant, anti-protozoal, anti-microbial, antivenom, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-ulcer, antidyspeptic and antidepressant (EL-Ansary et al., 2006; Masuda et al., 2002; Das and Das, 2002; Deitelhoftt et al., 2002; Yu et al., 2002; Surh et al., 2001; Ozaki et al., 2000; Yano et al., 2000). The all tested medicinal plants contain phytochemicals like saponin, steriods, glycosides and flavonoids, which indicated that plants rich in tannin and phenolic compounds, and may possesses antimicrobial activities against a number of microorganisms (Riaz et al., 2010; Parekh and Chanda, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Chloroformic and isoamyl alcohol extracts of Cinnnamomum zylanicum, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma long Linn, Trachyspermum ammi and selected standard antibiotics were investigated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against six human bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial activity was evaluated and based on the zone of inhibition using agar disc diffusion method. The tested bacterial strains were Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aurues, Serratia marcesnces, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin showed highly significant action against K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis while Ampicillin and Amoxicillin indicated lowest antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among the plants chloroform and isoamyl alcohol extracts of C. cyminum, S. aromaticum and C. long Linn had significant effect against P. aeruginosa, S. marcesnces and S. pyogenes. Comparison of antibacterial activity of medicinal herbs and standard antibiotics was also recorded via activity index. Used medicinal plants have various phytochemicals which reasonably justify their use as antibacterial agent.
    Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences 11/2013; 26(6):1109-16. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    • "Curcuma longa (Family: Zingiberaceae), also called Yu-jin in Chinese, has long been used in food and medicine. Curcuma drugs (e.g., C. longa) which were indicated for liver qi stagnation in Traditional Chinese Medicine, were selected for testing as a possible depression treatment [8]. Turmerone, an active constituent of C. longa, has been shown to possess powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-proliferative activities [9-13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-depressive activity of turmerone after one-week administration by using a mouse forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Animals were divided into four groups (n = 10 /group): control (0.9% saline), the three doses of turmerone (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 mg/kg) for one-week treatment. To assess the effect of turmerone on locomotor activity, mice were evaluated in the open-field paradigm. Forced swimming test (FST) and Tail suspension test (TST) were used to take as a measure of antidepressant activity. The probable mechanisms of action of the anti-depressive effect of turmerone was also investigated by measuring the activity of monoamine oxidase-A and corticosterone levels in the blood and the levels of monoamines in the cortex, striatum, hippocampus and hypothalamus of the mice. Turmerone (2.5, 5.0 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the immobility time of mice in both the FST and TST, but it did not significantly affect the ambulatory and total movements of mice. However, hyperactivity might explain the results. In addition, turmerone decreased the corticosterone level in the blood while it increased the levels of 5-HT in cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, the level of NE in striatum and hippocampus, the levels of MHPG and DOPAC in hypothalamus, the level of 5-HIAA in striatum, and the level of DA in striatum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. Turmerone (2.5, 5.0 mg/kg) decreased the activity of MAO-A in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of mouse brain. After one-week administration, turmerone produced antidepressant-like effects. The mechanisms of action of anti-depressive effect of turmerone seemed to involve an increase of the monoamines level decreasing the MAO-A activity and the stress of mice.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2013; 13(1):299. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-299 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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