Antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria from cultured catfish and aquaculture ponds
ABSTRACT The incidence of antibiotic resistance was compared in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the intestinal tracts of catfish and from water and sediment in aquaculture ponds and rivers of the southeastern United States. Resistance to tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, ampicillin, and nitrofurantoin was determined. The predominating microflora were Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas hydrophila. Individual and multiple antibiotic resistances were associated with antimicrobial use. Resistance apparently was higher in ponds undergoing antimicrobial therapy or with a history of recent treatment than in ponds without recent antimicrobial treatment. The lowest incidence of resistance was found in riverine bacteria.
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ABSTRACT: A total of 40 bacteria have been successfully isolated from internal organs of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia, namely, eight isolates of Aeromonas spp., 21 of Edwardsiella spp., six of Flavobacterium spp. and five of Vibrio spp. In terms of antibiotic susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 21 antibiotics, resulting in 482 (57.3%) cases of sensitivity and 61 (7.3%) cases of partial sensitivity. Meanwhile, 297 (35.4%) bacterial isolates were registered as resistant. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised bullfrogs have been exposed to tested antibiotics with results ranging from 0.27 to 0.39. Additionally, high percentages of heavy metal resistance among these isolates were observed, with values ranging from 85.0 to 100.0%. The current results provided us information on bacterial levels of locally farmed bullfrogs exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium as well as 21 types of antibiotics.Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 01/2009; 15(2). · 0.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The fish (84±1.02 g mean±SEM) were divided into 3 groups (N=15 in each group) as control (CNT), infected with Yersinia ruckeri (INF), and infected and essential oils (+EO). The CNT and INF groups were fed only with commercial fish feed. The +EO group was fed with feeds prepared with the rate of 10 ml herbal essential oils (mixed thyme and fennel) / 100 g feed during 21 days. The liver tissue (0.4 g) of fish was dissected in third day of the experimental period and mRNA transcription levels in liver tissue were determined by Real Time PCR analysis. INF and + EO groups exhibited decreased immunity against the challenging with Y. ruckeri infection (53.57 and 42.85 % mortality, respectively) when compared with CNT group (93.33 %). Gene mRNA transcription levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthesis (iNOS), serum amyloid A (SAA), that are responsible during the initiation and continuation of the inflammation increased in 1.86, 2.46, 1.62 and 55.7 fold change, respectively in INF group, whereas mRNA expressions of haptoglobin (Hp) decreased (1.2–fold change) in 3th day of experimental period. The +EO group eliminated the increase in all of the gene expressions.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man, 1879) (or scampi) is an important commercial species due to property as food supply as well as a valuable export product. In India, giant freshwater prawn distributes mainly in the Southern region where environmental conditions are most favorable for the ISSN: 2347-3215 Volume 1 Number 1 (2013) pp. 01-16 The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, popularly known as scampi, farmed crustacean species was used in this study. Fresh water prawn samples collected in two places. First place, Fresh water Prawn hatchery area, Marakanam and Neelakarai, this sample should be considered as a set=1. Second place, samples from various market areas in and around Kancheepuram town, Tamilnadu, this sample should be considered as set=2. The correlation between Total coliform Count (TCC) and Total Bacterial Count (TBC) of Set 1 and 2 was considerably significant statistically (r=0.40; p<0.01 and r=0.55; p<0.01). The positive regression line in the present study also supports that the increase in TCC with the increase in TBC. The principal bacterial genera encountered in fresh water prawn comprised of E. coli, Pseudomonas sps, Enterobacter sps, Vibrio sps Aeromonas sps and Staphylococcus aureus. Proteolytic activity and lipolytic activity were also found in the bacterial isolates which were isolated from giant fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) digestive system. The antibiotic sensitivity showed Oxytetracycline antibiotic was highly sensitive to most of the bacterial isolates from the prawn samples. Hence, Knowledge of the qualitative and quantitative aspects of bacterial flora in the hatchery would help to understand disturbances, if any, brought about during disease outbreaks. .International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review. 09/2013; 1(1):1-16.