The incidence of antibiotic resistance was compared in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the intestinal tracts of catfish and from water and sediment in aquaculture ponds and rivers of the southeastern United States. Resistance to tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, ampicillin, and nitrofurantoin was determined. The predominating microflora were Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas hydrophila. Individual and multiple antibiotic resistances were associated with antimicrobial use. Resistance apparently was higher in ponds undergoing antimicrobial therapy or with a history of recent treatment than in ponds without recent antimicrobial treatment. The lowest incidence of resistance was found in riverine bacteria.
"Although antibiotics have been used as growth promoters during several decades, alternatives were sought due to the development of bacterial resistance to active ingredients, residues in meat and accumulation of metabolites in the water and soil (Kesarcodi-Watson et al., 2008; Mandal et al., 2014; Manzetti & Ghisi, 2014; McPhearson et al., 1991). According to Fuller (1989), probiotics are live microorganisms that benefit the host animal by a balance improvement of its intestinal microbiota when supplemented in feed. "
"Antibiotics have been extensively used as growth enhancer and immunity enhancer and treatment of bacterial diseases in fish. However, the application of antibiotics and other chemotherapeutics has negative aspects such as risk of creating resistant pathogens, problems of antibiotic residues accumulating in treated fish, and unfavorable impact on the environment  . Hence, the European Union has banned the application of antibiotics and other chemicals that were efficient in promoting animal growth (Regulation 1831/2003/EC); therefore, the demand for replacement of natural products has been rising with a focus on plant products as alternative to antibiotics. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.
"Antibiotic treatment of bacterial diseases in fish culture has been applied for many years. The occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria associated with fish diseases is a worldwide problem in aquaculture, which has received considerable attention in the last years and continues to increase due to the absence of a more effective and safer use of antibiotics (McPhearson et al., 1991; Smith et al., 1994.). *Corresponding author. "
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