Health care-associated infections in the NICU result in increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged lengths of stay, and increased medical costs. Neonates are at high risk of acquiring health care-associated infections because of impaired host-defense mechanisms, limited amounts of protective endogenous flora on skin and mucosal surfaces at time of birth, reduced barrier function of their skin, use of invasive procedures and devices, and frequent exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotic agents. This clinical report reviews management and prevention of health care-associated infections in newborn infants.
"The occurrence of catheter-related infections in the summer was consistent with the increased SA prevalence (colonization pressure), and slack catheter monitoring. Catheter-related infections are the most common health-care associated infections in NICUs [22,27,28]. The general strategy for their prevention is based on good practice recommendations concerning (i) insertion and maintenance of indwelling lines, (ii) administration of prophylactic antibiotics e.g.: antibiotic lock therapy, (iii) use of skin emollients to reduce bacterial penetration, and (iv) health-care workers and visitors donning of single-use gowns . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In the context of a methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) outbreak, we aimed to improve our knowledge of S. aureus (SA) epidemiology in the neonatal care center (NCC) of a tertiary care teaching hospital.
We performed a complete one-year review of SA carrier, colonized or infected patients. Monthly prevalence and incidence of SA intestinal carriage, colonization and infection were calculated and the types of infection analysed. During the MSSA outbreak, strains were studied for antimicrobial resistance, content of virulence genes and comparative fingerprint in Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis. Hand hygiene and catheter-related practices were assessed by direct observational audits. Environmental investigation was performed in search of a SA reservoir.
Epidemiological analyses showed 2 or 3 prevalence peaks on a background of SA endemicity. In the NCC, during 2009, overall MSSA prevalence did not decrease below 5.5%, while mean MRSA prevalence was about 1.53%. Analysis of infection cases revealed that the outbreak corresponded to the emergence of catheter-related infections and was probably related to the relaxation in infection control practices in a context of high colonization pressure. Health care workers’ white coats appeared as a potential environmental reservoir that could perpetuate SA circulation in the ward.
This report emphasizes the importance of integrating MSSA along with methicillin-resistant SA in a program of epidemiological surveillance in the NCC.
"Nosocomial infection (also referred to as late onset neonatal sepsis (LOS) or health care associated infection) in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) is associated with morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospitalization, and increased medical costs . Neonates, especially premature infants, are at high risk of acquiring nosocomial infections because of impaired host-defense mechanisms, limited amounts of protective endogenous flora on skin and mucosal surfaces at the time of birth, reduced barrier function of their skin, use of invasive procedures and devices, and frequent exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotic agents . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nosocomial sepsis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment and prolonged hospital stay. Prevention of sepsis especially in the preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit remains a major challenge. The gastrointestinal tract is an important source of potential pathogens causing nosocomial sepsis as the immature intestinal epithelium can permit translocation of bacteria and yeast. The intestinal tract and its microflora play an important role in the immunity. Altering the gut microflora has been extensively studied for immunomodulation in preterm infants. Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Probiotics have been used for prevention and treatment of various medical conditions in children and adults. Studies on probiotics in premature infants have focused on normalizing intestinal flora, improvement in feeding intolerance, prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis. In this paper, we discuss the intestinal bacterial colonization pattern; the rational for probiotics and prebiotic therapy with special focus on the prevention of nosocomial sepsis in preterm infants.
International Journal of Pediatrics 01/2013; 2013(4):874726. DOI:10.1155/2013/874726
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : The purpose of this study was to assess and describe the practices involved in the insertion and maintenance of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in neonates in level III neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the United States and to compare the findings with current recommendations and evidence.
: The study included responses from 187 nurses, nurse practitioners, and neonatologists who place PICCs in NICUs representing 43 states.
: A 90-question, multiple-choice survey of a variety of PICC practices was sent to NICU directors and nursing staff responsible for PICC insertion. The explorative survey was sent by electronic and standard mail services. A descriptive analysis of the responses was performed.
: Main outcome measures included the response rate to the survey and the summarized responses of multiple categories of PICC practices.
: Of the 460 level III NICUs contacted, 187 returned surveys meeting criteria for analysis, yielding a 42% response rate. Responses showed wide variation of PICC practices in multiple aspects of PICC insertion and maintenance. The greatest level of conformity was seen with the following practices: use of 2 nurses to perform a dressing change, trimming the PICC, using a kit or cart containing insertion supplies, use of maximal sterile barrier precautions during insertion, catheter tip residing in the superior vena cava for upper body insertions, and not heparin locking, infusing blood products, performing catheter repair, or inserting using Modified Seldinger Technique. Some identified practices, such as infusion tubing change and catheter entry techniques, were contrary to current evidence and demonstrated a lack of correct information, and some represented safety concerns for the neonates having PICCs.
: This extensive national survey of NICU PICC practices showed wide variation in multiple aspects of PICC insertion and maintenance. A gap between the evidence and current practice was evident in many facets of training, insertion techniques, and maintenance processes. The data suggest a need for an increase in awareness of clinicians of current practice guidelines and standards and the need for further research to develop an evidence basis for many aspects of PICC care where lacking.
Advances in Neonatal Care 02/2013; 13(1):55-74. DOI:10.1097/ANC.0b013e318278b907 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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