Supplementation of a suboptimal protein dose with leucine or essential amino acids: effects on myofibrillar protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in men. J Pysiol

Exercise Metabolism Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
The Journal of Physiology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 03/2012; 590(Pt 11):2751-65. DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2012.228833
Source: PubMed


Leucine is a nutrient regulator of muscle protein synthesis by activating mTOR and possibly other proteins in this pathway. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of leucine in the regulation of human myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS). Twenty-four males completed an acute bout of unilateral resistance exercise prior to consuming either: a dose (25 g) of whey protein (WHEY); 6.25 g whey protein with total leucine equivalent to WHEY (LEU); or 6.25 g whey protein with total essential amino acids (EAAs) equivalent to WHEY for all EAAs except leucine (EAA-LEU). Measures of MPS, signalling through mTOR, and amino acid transporter (AAT) mRNA abundance were made while fasted (FAST), and following feeding under rested (FED) and post-exercise (EX-FED) conditions. Leucinaemia was equivalent between WHEY and LEU and elevated compared to EAA-LEU (P=0.001). MPS was increased above FAST at 1–3 h post-exercise in both FED (P <0.001) and EX-FED (P <0.001) conditions with no treatment effect.At 3–5 h, only WHEY remained significantly elevated above FAST in EX-FED(WHEY 184% vs. LEU 55% and EAA-LEU 35%; P =0.036). AAT mRNA abundance was increased above FAST after feeding and exercise with no effect of leucinaemia. In summary, a low dose of whey protein supplemented with leucine or all other essential amino acids was as effective as a complete protein (WHEY) in stimulating postprandial MPS; however only WHEY was able to sustain increased rates of MPS post-exercise and may therefore be most suited to increase exercise-induced muscle protein accretion.

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    • "Leucine alone can activate protein synthesis in humans to the same extent as whey protein and mixed essential amino acids plus leucine when administered 1–3 h postresistance exercise (Churchward-Venne et al., 2012). However , the requirement for whey protein for optimal protein synthesis 3– 5 h postexercise is acknowledged (Churchward-Venne et al., 2012; Phillips, 2014). Previously, Mourier and colleagues observed that DR in human males (wrestlers) when combined with supplementation of mixed BCAAs led to a reduction in total body mass and fat mass (À17.3%), "
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    ABSTRACT: Advancing age is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle (SkM) mass and function. Given the worldwide aging demographics, this is a major contributor to morbidity, escalating socio-economic costs and ultimately mortality. Previously, it has been established that a decrease in regenerative capacity in addition to SkM loss with age coincides with suppression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling pathways. However, genetic or pharmacological modulations of these highly conserved pathways have been observed to significantly enhance life and healthspan in various species, including mammals. This therefore provides a controversial paradigm in which reduced regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle tissue with age potentially promotes longevity of the organism. This paradox will be assessed and considered in the light of the following: (i) the genetic knockout, overexpression and pharmacological models that induce lifespan extension (e.g. IRS-1/s6K KO, mTOR inhibition) versus the important role of these signalling pathways in SkM growth and adaptation; (ii) the role of the sirtuins (SIRTs) in longevity versus their emerging role in SkM regeneration and survival under catabolic stress; (iii) the role of dietary restriction and its impact on longevity versus skeletal muscle mass regulation; (iv) the crosstalk between cellular energy metabolism (AMPK/TSC2/SIRT1) and survival (FOXO) versus growth and repair of SkM (e.g. AMPK vs. mTOR); and (v) the impact of protein feeding in combination with dietary restriction will be discussed as a potential intervention to maintain SkM mass while increasing longevity and enabling healthy aging. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Aging cell 04/2015; 14(4):511-23. DOI:10.1111/acel.12342 · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    • "The branched-chain amino acid leucine has been well studied for its ability to promote positive nitrogen balance as both a protein precursor and a signaling molecule in muscle of rats (Crozier et al. 2004), piglets (Boutry et al. 2013; Yin et al. 2010) and humans (Burd et al. 2012; Churchward-Venne et al. 2012; Li et al. 2011). Leucine has also been shown to decrease muscle protein breakdown in humans (Louard et al. 1990). "
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    ABSTRACT: Leucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid that acts as a substrate for protein synthesis and as a signaling molecule. Leucine not incorporated into muscle protein is ultimately oxidized through intermediates such as β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) which itself is reported to enhance muscle mass and function in rats and humans. HMB has been reported in the plasma following oral leucine administration in sheep and pigs but not in Sprague-Dawley rats, the standard preclinical model. Therefore, we conducted radiolabeled absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies in rats using a low (3 mg/kg) or high dose (1,000 mg/kg) of (14)C-leucine. Blood, tissue, and urine samples were analyzed for (14)C-leucine and its metabolites by HPLC-MS. Our results show for the first time that (14)C-HMB appears in plasma and urine of rats following an oral dose of (14)C-leucine. (14)C-leucine appears in plasma as (14)C-α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) with a slower time course than (14)C-HMB, a putative product of KIC. Further, two novel metabolites of leucine were detected in urine, N-acetyl leucine and glycyl leucine. Mass balance studies demonstrate that excretory routes accounted for no more than 0.9 % of the radiolabel and approximately 61 % of the dose was recovered in the carcass. Approximately 65 % of the dose was recovered in total, suggesting that approximately one-third of the leucine dose is oxidized to CO2. In conclusion, this study demonstrates endogenous production of HMB from leucine in adult rats, a standard preclinical model used to guide design of clinical trials in nutrition.
    Amino Acids 01/2015; 47(5). DOI:10.1007/s00726-015-1920-6 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    • "Recently, authors have demonstrated that low doses of leucine (0.75 g) may stimulate muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise in young healthy individuals [38]. Higher doses (3 g leucine), however, maintained muscle protein synthesis longer and may be more effective for anabolism after resistance exercise [38]. In our study, the suboptimal doses ingested after exercise might therefore have reduced the potential protein effects and the potential differences between groups for muscle strength and thickness. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The effects of protein supplementation on muscle thickness, strength and fatigue seem largely dependent on its composition. The current study compared the effects of soluble milk protein, micellar casein, and a placebo on strength and fatigue during and after a resistance training program. Methods Sixty-eight physically active men participated in this randomized controlled trial and underwent 10 weeks of lower-body resistance training. Participants were randomly assigned to the Placebo (PLA), Soluble Milk Protein (SMP, with fast digestion rate) or Micellar Casein (MC, with slow digestion rate) group. During the 10-week training period, participants were instructed to take 30 g of the placebo or protein twice a day, or three times on training days. Tests were performed on quadriceps muscles at inclusion (PRE), after 4 weeks (MID) and after 10 weeks (POST) of training. They included muscle endurance (maximum number of repetitions during leg extensions using 70% of the individual maximal load), fatigue (decrease in muscle power after the endurance test), strength, power and muscle thickness. Results Muscle fatigue was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the SMP group at MID and POST (-326.8 ± 114.1 W and -296.6 ± 130.1 W, respectively) as compared with PLA (-439.2 ± 153.9 W and -479.2 ± 138.1 W, respectively) and MC (-415.1 ± 165.1 W and -413.7 ± 139.4 W, respectively). Increases in maximal muscle power, strength, endurance and thickness were not statistically different between groups. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that protein composition has a large influence on muscular performance after prolonged resistance training. More specifically, as compared with placebo or micellar casein, soluble milk protein (fast digestible) appeared to significantly reduce muscle fatigue induced by intense resistance exercise.
    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 07/2014; 11(1):36. DOI:10.1186/1550-2783-11-36 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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