Mechanistic study on the electrochemical reduction of 9,10-anthraquinone in the presence of hydrogen-bond and proton donating additives.
ABSTRACT The electrochemical reduction of 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) was investigated in CH(3)CN in both the absence and presence of the hydrogen-bond and proton donating additives, CH(3)OH, CH(CF(3))(2)OH, phenol, 4-methoxyphenol, 4-cyanophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and benzoic acid (BA). Three clearly different types of electrochemical behavior were observed with increasing concentrations of the additives, and were simulated to analyze the reaction mechanisms. Type I was observed for weakly interacting additives, such as CH(3)OH, characterized by positive shifts of the two well-separated reduction waves, corresponding to the formation of AQ(•-) and AQ(2-), with no loss of reversibility. The second wave shifted more strongly, and finally merged with the first. These behaviors are explained by the association of AQ(2-) with the additives via strong hydrogen-bonding. Type II is attributed to a reduction mechanism involving quantitative formation of strong hydrogen-bonded complexes of AQ(2-) with additives, such as CH(CF(3))(2)OH, phenol and 4-methoxyphenol, showing a reversible or quasireversible two-electron reduction wave with increasing concentrations of the additives. The behavior of Type III, observed in the presence of strongly interacting additives, such as 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and BA, is characterized by a voltammogram composed of the 2-electorn cathodic and the broad anodic waves without keeping reversibility, facilitated by proton transfer in the hydrogen-bonded complexes, AQ(•-)-BA and AQ(2-)-BA. The effects of hydrogen-bonding and protonation on the electrochemistry of AQ have been systematically demonstrated in terms of the potentials and reaction pathways of the various species, which appear in quinone-hydroquinone systems.
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ABSTRACT: The electrochemical reduction of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone, 1, has been studied in acetonitrile with added 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, 2. At low concentrations of 2 the reaction proceeds by the following pathway: reduction of the quinone (Q) to its anion radical (Q*-) followed by complexation of the anion radical with 2 (HA) and the further reduction of the hydrogen-bonded complex (Q*- (HA)) to form HQ- and A-. The latter reaction is a concerted proton and electron- transfer reaction (CPET). At higher concentrations of 2, the pathway changes. The first steps remain the same, but now Q*- (HA) is reduced to HQ- via a disproportionation reaction with Q*- along with proton transfer from HA to Q*- to form HQ* which is reduced to HQ-. The only mechanism that could be found which would account for all of the data involves proton transfer to Q*- occurring within a higher complex, Q*-(HA)3.The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 12/2006; 110(43):22043-7. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Molecular and electronic structural properties of the hydrogen-bonded complexes of p-quinone dianions (PQ(2)(-)) were investigated by electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry of PQ in MeCN combined with ab initio MO calculations. Hydrogen bonding between PQ(2)(-) and MeOH was measured as the continuous positive shift of the apparent second half-wave reduction potentials with increasing concentrations of MeOH. Detailed analyses of the behavior reveal that PQ(2)(-) forms the 1:2 hydrogen-bonded complexes at low concentrations of MeOH and the 1:4 complexes at high concentrations, yielding the formation constants. Temperature dependence of the formation constants allows us to yield the formation energy as 76.6 and 118.9 kJ mol(-)(1) for the 1:2 and 1:4 complex formation of the 1,4-benzoquinone dianion (BQ(2)(-)) with MeOH, respectively. These results show that the pi-dianions involving the quinone carbonyl groups exhibit very strong hydrogen-accepting ability. The longest wavelength band of the spectra of BQ(2)(-) and the chloranil dianion (CL(2)(-)) is assigned to the (1)B(3u) <-- (1)A(g) band mainly contributed from an intramolecular charge-transfer (CT) configuration. Hydrogen bonding allows the band of BQ(2)(-) and CL(2)(-) to be blue-shifted, depending on the strength of the hydrogen bonds. CNDO/S-CI calculations reveal that the blue shift is ascribed to stabilization of the ground state by the hydrogen bonding involving strong n-sigma-type CT interaction. The HF/6-31G(d) calculation results show that the structure of PQ(2)(-) is characterized by a lengthening of the C=O bonds and a benzenoid ring. The geometrical properties of the hydrogen-bonded complexes of PQ(2)(-) are a slight lengthening of the C=O bonds and a short distance of the hydrogen bonds. It is demonstrated that this situation is due to the strong n-sigma CT interaction in the hydrogen bonds. The results suggest that the differing functions and properties of biological quinones are conferred by the n-sigma CT interaction through hydrogen bonding of the dianions with their protein environment.The Journal of Organic Chemistry 04/2000; 65(5):1448-55. · 4.56 Impact Factor
Article: Proton-coupled electron transfer.Chemical Reviews 12/2007; 107(11):5004-64. · 41.30 Impact Factor