Overt gastrointestinal bleeding because of hookworm infection
ABSTRACT Hookworm infection is a relatively common cause of anemia in endemic areas. The most common hookworm species are Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. In this report we present a case of overt gastrointestinal bleeding because of hookworm infection. Capsule endoscopy revealed many hookworms in the lumen of proximal jejunum where active bleeding was seen. The patient was successfully treated with Albendazole.
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ABSTRACT: To develop a quantitative PCR method for detecting hookworm infection and quantification. A real-time PCR method was designed based on the intergenic region II of ribosomal DNA of the hookworm Necator americanus. The detection limit of this method was compared with the microscopy-based Kato-Katz method. The real-time PCR method was used to conduct an epidemiological survey of hookworm infection in southern Fujian Province of China. The real-time PCR method was specific for detecting Necator americanus infection, and was more sensitive than conventional PCR or microscopy-based method. A preliminary survey for hookworm infection in villages of Fujian Province confirmed the high prevalence of hookworm infections in the resident populations. In addition, the infection rate in women was significantly higher than that of in men. A real-time PCR method is designed, which has increased detection sensitivity for more accurate epidemiological studies of hookworm infections, especially when intensity of the infection needs to be considered.Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 12/2012; 2(12):925-929. DOI:10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60001-5
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ABSTRACT: The occurrence and spatial distribution of intestinal helminth infection in children is fairly well understood. However, knowledge on how helminth infections govern intestinal morbidity is scarce. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess and quantify the relationship between single and multiple species helminth infection with clinical and self-reported morbidity indicators and nutritional status in Champasack province, southern Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). A random sample of 1313 children, aged 6 months to 12 years, from villages in nine rural districts were enrolled and examined for helminth infection using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. Morbidity was assessed by self-reported symptoms, coupled with clinical examination and appraisal of nutritional status and anaemia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was employed to study associations between helminth infection and morbidity indicators and anaemia. We found considerable morbidity among the surveyed children, including hepatomegaly (13.7%), pale conjunctiva (13.2%) and abdominal pain (10.4%). Anaemia was recorded in 60.4% of the children, whilst signs of stunting and low body mass index (BMI) were observed in 49.8% and 33.3% of the surveyed children, respectively. Hookworm and Opisthorchis viverrini were the predominant helminth species with prevalences of 51.0% and 43.3%, respectively. The prevalence of Schistosoma mekongi in the surveyed children was 5.6%. Multiple species helminth infections were recorded in 40.4% of the study cohort. Morbidity was associated with specific helminth species infection (e.g. S. mekongi with hepatomegaly; adjusted odds ratio (OR): 9.49, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.07-43.51) and multiparasitism (e.g. two or more helminth species with abdominal pain; OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.46-3.93). Anaemia was associated with hookworm infection (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.16-2.34) and multiparasitism (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.18-2.29). Low BMI was associated with O. viverrini infection (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.14-2.49) and multiparasitism (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.01-2.00). The multiple strong associations reported here between helminth infections (single or multiple species) and intestinal morbidity among children in rural parts of southern Lao PDR call for concerted efforts to control helminth infections, which in turn might improve children's health and development.Acta Tropica 10/2014; 141. DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.09.015 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review examines the use of digestive endoscopy to visualize intestinal helminths. The infections caused by these parasites are responsible for high levels of morbidity and mortality. These helminths can be visualized using gastroduodenal endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and colonoscopy. Endoscopic examination of the small bowel is limited by its considerable length and its distance from the mouth and anus. Since capsule endoscopy (CE) was first reported in 2000, it has been established as a noninvasive modality for the investigation of the gastrointestinal tract. CE is used as a first-line tool for imaging various small-bowel diseases, mainly obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and Crohn's disease. Since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved CE in 2001, the indications for its use have expanded widely. For example, CE can be used to visualize the in vivo kinetics of intestinal helminths. If the current trends in technological development continue, CE will become more widely used to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of helminth infections in the near future.Parasitology International 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.parint.2013.09.006 · 2.11 Impact Factor