ATP-binding cassette transporter isoform C2 (ABCC2) is exclusively targeted to the apical plasma membrane of polarized cells. Although apical localization of ABCC2 in hepatocytes is crucial for the biliary excretion of a variety of metabolites, the mechanism regulating its apical targeting is poorly understood. In the present study, an apical targeting signal was identified in the first cytoplasmic loop domain (CLD1) of ABCC2 in HepG2 cells. Overexpression of CLD1 significantly disturbed the apical targeting of FLAG-ABCC2 in a competitive manner, suggesting the presence of a saturable sorting machinery in HepG2 cells. Next, deletion analysis identified a potential targeting sequence within a 20-amino-acid long peptide (aa 272-291) of CLD1. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of this region in full-length ABCC2 further narrowed down the apical targeting determinant to five amino acids, S(283)QDAL(287). Of these, S(283) and L(287) were found to be conserved among vertebrate ABCC2 orthologs. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that both S(283) and L(287) were crucial for the targeting specificity of ABCC2. Introducing this apical targeting sequence into the corresponding region of ABCC1, an exclusively basolateral protein, caused the hybrid ABCC1 to partially localize in the apical membrane. Thus, the CLD1 of ABCC2 contains a novel apical sorting determinant, and a saturable sorting machinery is present in polarized HepG2 cells.
"– In addition to the biosynthetic processes, ABC transporter localization and stability are regulated by multiple protein sequences. , , ,  Among these, PDZ ligands have been shown to contribute to protein localization and stability at the plasma membrane. , – Given the apparent similarity of the ABCC6 C-terminal sequence to other PDZ-containing ABCC transporters and the presence of a disease-associated mutation within this region, we chose to evaluate the role of this sequence in the expression and regulation of ABCC6. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the ABCC6 ABC-transporter are causative of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). The loss of functional ABCC6 protein in the basolateral membrane of the kidney and liver is putatively associated with altered secretion of a circulatory factor. As a result, systemic changes in elastic tissues are caused by progressive mineralization and degradation of elastic fibers. Premature arteriosclerosis, loss of skin and vascular tone, and a progressive loss of vision result from this ectopic mineralization. However, the identity of the circulatory factor and the specific role of ABCC6 in disease pathophysiology are not known. Though recessive loss-of-function alleles are associated with alterations in ABCC6 expression and function, the molecular pathologies associated with the majority of PXE-causing mutations are also not known. Sequence analysis of orthologous ABCC6 proteins indicates the C-terminal sequences are highly conserved and share high similarity to the PDZ sequences found in other ABCC subfamily members. Genetic testing of PXE patients suggests that at least one disease-causing mutation is located in a PDZ-like sequence at the extreme C-terminus of the ABCC6 protein. To evaluate the role of this C-terminal sequence in the biosynthesis and trafficking of ABCC6, a series of mutations were utilized to probe changes in ABCC6 biosynthesis, membrane stability and turnover. Removal of this PDZ-like sequence resulted in decreased steady-state ABCC6 levels, decreased cell surface expression and stability, and mislocalization of the ABCC6 protein in polarized cells. These data suggest that the conserved, PDZ-like sequence promotes the proper biosynthesis and trafficking of the ABCC6 protein.
PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e97360. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0097360 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review provides an introduction to stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry (MS) and its emerging applications in the analysis of membrane transporter proteins. Various approaches and application examples, for the generation and use of quantitation reference standards-either stable isotope-labeled peptides or proteins-are discussed as they apply to the MS quantitation of membrane proteins. Technological considerations for the sample preparation of membrane transporter proteins are also presented.
The AAPS Journal 09/2013; 15(4). DOI:10.1208/s12248-013-9529-8 · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Localization of ATP-binding cassette transporter isoform C1 (ABCC1) to the basolateral membrane of polarized cells is crucial for export of a variety of cellular metabolites; however, the mechanism regulating basolateral targeting of the transporter is poorly understood. Here we describe identification of a basolateral targeting signal in the first cytoplasmic loop domain (CLD1) of human ABCC1. Comparison of the CLD1 amino acid sequences from ABCC1 and ABCC2 revealed that ABCC1 possesses a characteristic sequence, E(295)EVEALI(301), which is comprised of a cluster of acidic glutamate residues followed by a di-leucine motif. This characteristic sequence is highly conserved among vertebrate ABCC1 orthologs and is positioned at a site that is structurally equivalent to the apical targeting signal previously described in ABCC2. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of this sequence in full-length human ABCC1 showed that both L(300) and I(301) residues were required for basolateral targeting of ABCC1 in polarized HepG2 and MDCK cells. Conversely, E(295), E(296), and E(298) residues were not required for basolateral localization of the transporter. Therefore, a di-leucine motif within the CLD1 is a basolateral targeting determinant of ABCC1.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2013; 441(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.10.013 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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