Relationship between skin parameters (darkness or thickness) and photoreaction of Chinese Han skin
Dermatological Department, Third affiliated hospital of Xuzhou Medical College , Xuzhou , China.Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology (Impact Factor: 1.12). 03/2012; 31(4). DOI: 10.3109/15569527.2012.668599
Background: Skin pigmentation and the stratum corneum are the two primary natural factors that protect against UV damage. Although several classification systems exist to quantify the ability of the skin to protect itself from damaging UV radiation, few reports have assessed skin parameters and photoreaction in persons of Han Chinese descent. Aims: To understand the relationship between skin darkness, skin thickness, and photoreaction in Chinese Han subjects. Methods: Thirty-onesubjects were exposed to UVA and UVB. Minimal persistent pigment darkening dose (MPPD) and minimal erythema dose (MED) were obtained. Before the UV irradiation, the test sites were measured by the Mexameter MX 16, Chromameter CR400, and Skin B-ultrasonic to determine skin color and thickness>. Using the ratio of J(MPPD)/J(MED), we classified the subjects into four energy skin phototypes (ESPTs) and the skin parameters for each of these groups were analyzed. Results: Skin color and skin thickness were significantly different among the ESPTs. There was also a significant positive correlation between skin group and the skin color and thickness parameters (b*, melanin index [MI], thickness). As the ESPTs increased from ESPT A to ESPT D, the mean dose to achieve MED increased, while the MPPD decreased. Conclusion: As the ESPTs increased from type A to type D, there was a proclivity to tan rather than burn. Similarly, the skin became darker and thicker as the phototype increased from A to D.
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ABSTRACT: Many attempts have been made to quantify ultraviolet (UV)-induced erythema and pigmentation, but most studies have been focused on the initial changes of reaction for a few hours or days and neglected the later events. : A time course of skin colour changes induced by fluorescent sunlamp with a broad band of UVA and UVB radiation was evaluated in 15 Korean male volunteers using two different reflectance spectrophotometers for 28 days. The results were presented by E (erythema)- and M (melanin)-index as well as values converted to the L*a*b* system recommended by the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage). The mean individual typology angle of the subjects was 46.6 degrees, which indicated "light" group in constitutional skin colour category. A day after UV exposure, the L* and b* values decreased significantly, following the colour direction of persistent pigment darkening. The values went in the opposite direction persistently until after the 1st week, when maximum tanning was obtained. They then shifted toward their original positions, parallel to the constitutive melanization axis. The a* index showed a significant increase toward the mean colour of haemoglobin on day 1. It returned to its original value along the constitutive melanization axis. The E-index showed a maximum value at day 1, then returned to baseline. The value of M-index reached a peak at day 7. There was no significant difference between the two instruments, but each has its own characteristic features. These promising quantitative methods should enable us to achieve objective measurement of the dermatophysiologic changes and to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic modalities on skin disorders without the inherent errors associated with subjective judgement. Our results provide standard data on a time course of UV-induced skin erythema and pigmentation.Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine 03/2002; 18(1):23-8. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Very little information exists on the amount of natural and artificial UV light required to cause sunburn and tanning in individuals with very pale skin who are at the greatest risk of developing skin cancer. We have investigated minimal erythema dose (MED) and minimal melanogenic dose (MMD) in a group of 31 volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types I and II using an Oriel 1000 W xenon arc solar simulator and natural sunlight in Sydney, Australia. We measured the erythemal and melanogenic responses using conventional visual scoring, a chromameter and an erythema meter. We found that the average MED measured visually using the artificial UV source was 68.7 +/- 3.3 mJ/cm2 (3.4 +/- 0.2 standard erythema doses [SED]), which was significantly different from the MED of sunlight, which was 93.6 +/- 5.6 mJ/cm2 (P < 0.001) (11.7 +/- 0.7 SED). We also found significant correlations between the solar-simulated MED values, the melanin index (erythema meter) and the L* function (chromameter). The average MMD (obtained in 16 volunteers only) using solar-simulated light was 85.6 +/- 4.9 mJ/cm2, which was significantly less than that measured with natural sunlight (118.3 +/- 8.6 mJ/cm2; P < 0.05). We mathematically modeled the data for both the chromameter and the erythema meter to see if we were able to obtain a more objective measure of MED and differentiation between skin types. Using this model, we were able to detect erythemal responses using the erythema index function of the erythema meter and the a* function of the chromameter at lower UV doses than either the standard visual or COLIPA methods.Photochemistry and Photobiology 11/2003; 78(4):331-6. DOI:10.1562/0031-8655(2003)078<0331:OMOMEA>2.0.CO;2 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phototherapy consists of multiple ultraviolet (UV) exposures. Most previous studies have focused on erythema following a single UV exposure in fair-skinned persons. Although it is well known that phototherapy lowers the daily UV-threshold dose for erythema in clinical practice, this is insufficiently documented under controlled experimental conditions. The purpose of this study was to quantify the change in the daily threshold for a dose specific erythema grade after 1-4 consecutive daily UV exposures. Forty-nine healthy volunteers (skin type II-V) with varying pigmentation quantified by skin reflectance. Two UV sources were used: a narrowband UVB (Philips TL01) and a Solar Simulator (Solar Light Co.). Just perceptible erythema after 24 h was chosen as the minimal erythema dose (+); besides + and ++ were assessed. We found a positive and significant exponential relationship between skin pigmentation and UV dose to elicit a specific erythema grade on the back after 1-4 UV exposures. After repetitive UV exposures the UV dose had to be lowered more in dark-skinned persons compared with fair-skinned persons to elicit a certain erythema grade. This applied to both UV sources and all erythema grades. In the dark-skinned persons the daily UV dose after the 4 days UV exposure should be lowered by 40-50% to avoid burns compared with the single UV exposure. For the most fair-skinned persons essentially no reduction in the daily UV dose was needed. Our results indicate that the pre-exposure pigmentation level can guide the UV dosage in phototherapy.Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine 09/2004; 20(4):163-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0781.2004.00104.x · 1.26 Impact Factor
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