Organic/Metallic nanohybrids based on amphiphilic dumbbell-shaped dendrimers.
ABSTRACT In this study, we synthesized a series of amphiphilic dumbbell-shaped dendrimers through the addition reactions of a hydrophilic poly(oxyalkylene) with hydrophobic dendrons based on 4-isocyanate-4'-(3,3-dimethyl-2,4-dioxo-azetidine)diphenylmethane with different numbers of branching generations. The addition reaction of azetidine-2,4-diones of dendrons to amines of poly(oxyalkylene) was proceeded by stirring the reactants in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) under nitrogen at 60 °C. In aqueous media, the dumbbell-shaped dendrimers self-assembled into micelles with their hydrophobic dendrons in the core and their hydrophilic poly(oxyalkylene) segments forming loops in the corona shell. Employing the unique self-assembled micelle structures as templates for subsequent chemical reduction of the Ag(+) ions, we generated new types of organic/metallic [silver nanoparticle (AgNP)] nanohybrid clusters. The long poly(oxyalkylene) loops that extended into the aqueous phase complexed with the Ag(+) ions, providing the suspension with steric stabilization to prevent the AgNPs from collision and flocculation. After reduction, the AgNPs were present in a homogeneous distribution in the round dendrimer micelle-stabilized nanoclusters. The diameter of each AgNP was less than 10 nm; the diameter of each round nanocluster was in the range of 50-200 nm. The encapsulation efficiency of the AgNPs in micelles was about 54-69% for the dumbbell-shaped dendrimer based organic/AgNP nanohybrid.
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ABSTRACT: Dendritic polymers with highly branching structures exhibit many unique properties. In this paper, a computational study using the Wang-Landau sampling technique is carried out to reveal the phase transition behaviours of dendritic homopolymers with various branching structures. Two types of dendritic homopolymers, dendrimers/dendrigrafts (D/D) and hyperbranched (HB) polymers are studied. It is found that with increasing degree of branching in the dendritic polymer, the liquid-solid (LS) transition temperature increases and the coil-globule (CG) transition becomes weak. Additionally, under similar degrees of branching and polymerization, D/D polymers have a higher LS transition temperature than HB polymers. The reason is that the D/D polymers have greater regularity in the radial distribution of the branching units, which facilitates monomer packing during the LS transition. The distinctive internal unit distribution at various temperatures is quantitatively analysed. Our results show the importance of dendritic polymer structure regularity in phase transition behaviours and are valuable in guiding the structural design of dendritic macromolecules for functionalization applications.Soft Matter 04/2014; · 4.15 Impact Factor