Infection-Associated Nuclear Degeneration in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae Requires Non-Selective Macro-Autophagy

School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon, United Kingdom.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 03/2012; 7(3):e33270. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033270
Source: PubMed


The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae elaborates a specialized infection structure called an appressorium to breach the rice leaf surface and gain access to plant tissue. Appressorium development is controlled by cell cycle progression, and a single round of nuclear division occurs prior to appressorium formation. Mitosis is always followed by programmed cell death of the spore from which the appressorium develops. Nuclear degeneration in the spore is known to be essential for plant infection, but the precise mechanism by which it occurs is not known.
In yeast, nuclear breakdown requires a specific form of autophagy, known as piecemeal microautophagy of the nucleus (PMN), and we therefore investigated whether this process occurs in the rice blast fungus. Here, we report that M. oryzae possesses two conserved components of a putative PMN pathway, MoVac8 and MoTsc13, but that both are dispensable for nuclear breakdown during plant infection. MoVAC8 encodes a vacuolar membrane protein and MoTSC13 a peri-nuclear and peripheral ER protein.
We show that MoVAC8 is necessary for caffeine resistance, but dispensable for pathogenicity of M. oryzae, while MoTSC13 is involved in cell wall stress responses and is an important virulence determinant. By functional analysis of ΔMoatg1 and ΔMoatg4 mutants, we demonstrate that infection-associated nuclear degeneration in M. oryzae instead occurs by non-selective macroautophagy, which is necessary for rice blast disease.

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Available from: Darren M Soanes, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "Deletion of the atg1 homolog resulted in inhibition of autophagy, as evidenced by a defect in autophagosome formation and absence of autophagic bodies in vacuoles of S. cerevisiae and Podospora anserina (Kamada et al., 2000; Pinan-Lucarre et al., 2005). Disruption of atg1 resulted in reducing the accumulation of lipid droplets in Metarhizium robertsii and Magnaporthe oryzae (Duan et al., 2013; He et al., 2012). Disruption of atg1 also resulted in reduction of conidiospores, increase of peroxisomes and over-production of penicillin in Penicillium chrysogenum (Bartoszewska et al., 2011). "
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    • "However, even in pexophagy-deficient mutants, the clearance/turnover of peroxisomes could be achieved at the late stage of infection (when penetration and in planta growth occur), probably as a consequence of autophagic cell death (ACD) in the conidial cells. ACD is essential for appressorial maturation and function [32], and likely depends on non-selective autophagy, but not on pexophagy and/or other selective subtypes of autophagy in M. oryzae [33]. "
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