Gram-negative bacteria release lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the bloodstream. Here, it engages Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 expressed in human lung microvascular endothelia (HMVEC-Ls) to open the paracellular pathway through Src family kinase (SFK) activation. The signaling molecules that couple TLR4 to the SFK-driven barrier disruption are unknown. In HMVEC-Ls, siRNA-induced silencing of TIRAP/Mal and overexpression of dominant-negative TIRAP/Mal each blocked LPS-induced SFK activation and increases in transendothelial [(14)C]albumin flux, implicating the MyD88-dependent pathway. LPS increased TRAF6 autoubiquitination and binding to IRAK1. Silencing of TRAF6, TRAF6-dominant-negative overexpression, or preincubation of HMVEC-Ls with a cell-permeable TRAF6 decoy peptide decreased both LPS-induced SFK activation and barrier disruption. LPS increased binding of both c-Src and Fyn to GST-TRAF6 but not to a GST-TRAF6 mutant in which the three prolines in the putative Src homology 3 domain-binding motif (amino acids 461-469) were substituted with alanines. A cell-permeable decoy peptide corresponding to the same proline-rich motif reduced SFK binding to WT GST-TRAF6 compared with the Pro → Ala-substituted peptide. Finally, LPS increased binding of activated Tyr(P)(416)-SFK to GST-TRAF6, and preincubation of HMVEC-Ls with SFK-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors, PP2 and SU6656, diminished TRAF6 binding to c-Src and Fyn. During the TRAF6-SFK association, TRAF6 catalyzed Lys(63)-linked ubiquitination of c-Src and Fyn, whereas SFK activation increased tyrosine phosphorylation of TRAF6. The TRAF6 decoy peptide blocked both LPS-induced SFK ubiquitination and TRAF6 phosphorylation. Together, these data indicate that the proline-rich Src homology 3 domain-binding motif in TRAF6 interacts directly with activated SFKs to couple LPS engagement of TLR4 to SFK activation and loss of barrier integrity in HMVEC-Ls.
"Recent studies have shown that TLR4 signaling is coupled to c-Src family kinase activation, tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins, and opening of the paracellular pathway in human lung microvascular endothelia [21,22]. We investigated whether c-Src was involved in the induction of VCAM-1 in response to LPS. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In bacteria-induced glomerulonephritis, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a key component of the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria) can increase oxidative stress and the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which recruits leukocytes to the glomerular mesangium. However, the mechanisms underlying VCAM-1 expression induced by LPS are still unclear in human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs).
We demonstrated that LPS induced VCAM-1 mRNA and protein levels associated with an increase in the promoter activity of VCAM-1, determined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and promoter assay. LPS-induced responses were inhibited by transfection with siRNAs of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), Nox2, Nox4, p47phox, c-Src, p38 MAPK, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), and p300 or pretreatment with the inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (ROS, edaravone), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], c-Src (PP1), p38 MAPK (SB202190), and p300 (GR343). LPS induced NADPH oxidase activation, ROS production, and p47phox translocation from the cytosol to the membrane, which were reduced by PP1 or c-Src siRNA. We observed that LPS induced TLR4, MyD88, c-Src, and p47phox complex formation determined by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot. We further demonstrated that LPS stimulated ATF2 and p300 phosphorylation and complex formation via a c-Src/NADPH oxidase/ROS/p38 MAPK pathway. Up-regulation of VCAM-1 led to enhancing monocyte adhesion to HRMCs challenged with LPS, which was inhibited by siRNAs of c-Src, p47phox, p38 MAPK, ATF2, and p300 or pretreatment with an anti-VCAM-1 neutralizing antibody.
In HRMCs, LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression was, at least in part, mediated through a TLR4/MyD88/ c-Src/NADPH oxidase/ROS/p38 MAPK-dependent p300 and ATF2 pathway associated with recruitment of monocyte adhesion to kidney. Blockade of these pathways may reduce monocyte adhesion via VCAM-1 suppression and attenuation of the inflammatory responses in renal diseases.
Cell Communication and Signaling 11/2012; 10(1):33. DOI:10.1186/1478-811X-10-33 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite advances in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN), currently available therapies have not prevented the epidemic of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). The morbidity of CKD, and the inexorable increase in the prevalence of end stage renal disease, demands more effective approaches to prevent and treat progressive CKD. We undertook next generation sequencing in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy to study in depth the pathogenic alterations involved in DN with progressive CKD. We employed the obese, diabetic ZS rat, a model that develops diabetic nephropathy, characterized by progressive CKD, inflammation and fibrosis, the hallmarks of human disease. We then used RNA-seq to examine the combined effects of renal cells and infiltrating inflammatory cells acting as a pathophysiological unit. The comprehensive systems biology analysis of progressive CKD revealed multiple interactions of altered genes that were integrated into morbid networks. These pathological gene assemblies lead to renal inflammation, promote apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in progressive CKD. Moreover, in what is clearly a major therapeutic challenge, multiple and redundant pathways were found to be linked to renal fibrosis, a major cause of kidney loss. We conclude that systems biology applied to progressive CKD in DN can be used to develop novel therapeutic strategies directed to restore critical anomalies in affected gene networks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R)-associated factor (TRAF) family of intracellular proteins were originally identified as signaling adaptors that bind directly to the cytoplasmic regions of receptors of the TNF-R superfamily. The past decade has witnessed rapid expansion of receptor families identified to employ TRAFs for signaling. These include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), T cell receptor, IL-1 receptor family, IL-17 receptors, IFN receptors and TGFbeta receptors. In addition to their role as adaptor proteins, most TRAFs also act as E3 ubiquitin ligases to activate downstream signaling events. TRAF-dependent signaling pathways typically lead to the activation of nuclear factor-kappaBs (NF-kappaBs), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), or interferon-regulatory factors (IRFs). Compelling evidence obtained from germ-line and cell-specific TRAF-deficient mice demonstrates that each TRAF plays indispensable and non-redundant physiological roles, regulating innate and adaptive immunity, embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, stress response, and bone metabolism. Notably, mounting evidence implicates TRAFs in the pathogenesis of human diseases such as cancers and autoimmune diseases, which has sparked new appreciation and interest in TRAF research. This review presents an overview of the current knowledge of TRAFs, with an emphasis on recent findings concerning TRAF molecules in signaling and in human diseases.
Journal of Molecular Signaling 06/2013; 8(1):7. DOI:10.1186/1750-2187-8-7
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