Hypertension and longitudinal changes in cerebral blood flow: the SMART-MR study.
ABSTRACT Cerebral hypoperfusion is among the mechanisms that may explain the association of high blood pressure (BP) with dementia. However, few data are available on the longitudinal association of hypertension and cerebral perfusion.
We examined the longitudinal association of hypertension, BP, and antihypertensive drugs with change in parenchymal cerebral blood flow (pCBF) in 575 patients with manifest atherosclerotic disease (mean age, 57 ± 10 years) from the SMART-MR study. Total CBF was measured at baseline and at follow-up with magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and was expressed per 100ml brain volume as an indicator of cerebral perfusion. Automated brain segmentation was used to quantify brain tissue volumes and cerebrospinal fluid on MR imaging.
Mean (standard deviation [SD]) baseline pCBF was 52.3 (9.8) ml/min/100ml and after 3.9 years (range, 3.0-5.8 years) of follow-up declined to 50.7 (10.3) ml/min/100ml. Regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, follow-up time, and vascular risk showed that untreated and poorly controlled hypertension and higher levels of systolic and diastolic BP (per SD) were significantly associated with a decline in pCBF; mean differences in decline (95% confidence interval) were -2.2 (-4.4 to 0.0), -1.0 (-1.8 to -0.1), and -1.0 (-1.8 to -0.2) ml/min/100ml. In addition, within hypertensive patients (n = 469), patients using angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) did not show a decline in pCBF, whereas patients using other antihypertensive drugs did show a decline in pCBF.
Untreated hypertension, poorly controlled hypertension, and high BP levels are associated with a decline in pCBF. In addition, treatment with ARBs might result in less decline in pCBF than other antihypertensive treatment.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS)-a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors-is linked with cognitive decline and dementia. However, the brain changes underlying this link are presently unknown. In this study, we tested the relationship between MetS, cerebral blood flow (CBF), white matter hyperintensity burden, and gray matter (GM) volume in cognitively healthy late middle-aged adults. Additionally, the extent to which MetS was associated with cognitive performance was assessed. METHODS: Late middle-aged adults from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (N = 69, mean age = 60.4 years) underwent a fasting blood draw, arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI, T1-weighted MRI, T2FLAIR MRI, and neuropsychological testing. MetS was defined as abnormalities on three or more factors, including abdominal obesity, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose. RESULTS: Mean GM CBF was 15% lower in MetS compared to controls. Voxel-wise image analysis indicated that the MetS group had lower CBF across a large portion of the cortical surface, with the exception of medial and inferior parts of the occipital and temporal lobes. The MetS group also had lower immediate memory function; a mediation analysis indicated this relationship was partially mediated by CBF. Among the MetS factors, abdominal obesity and elevated triglycerides were most strongly associated with lower CBF. CONCLUSIONS: The results underscore the importance of reducing the number of cardiovascular risk factors for maintaining CBF and cognition in an aging population.Obesity 11/2012; · 3.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evidence supporting a link between vascular disorders such as hypertension and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing. Population studies have suggested an association between hypertension and an increased risk of developing AD. A potential role for antihypertensive medications in the management of cognitive disorders has also been suggested, although findings are mixed. However, it is of interest that evidence is now leaning towards the possibility that some of these antihypertensive medications may improve cognition independent of their blood pressure lowering effects. Many of these drugs cross the blood-brain barrier and may influence neurotransmitters involved in cognition. Increasing knowledge of the actions of antihypertensives in the brain and the vascular system could lead to better treatment and/or prevention options for AD.Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 05/2013; 13(5):477-82. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A wide range of clinical consequences may be associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) including systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, glucose intolerance, impotence, gastroesophageal reflux, and obesity, to name a few. Despite this, 82 % of men and 93 % of women with OSA remain undiagnosed. OSA affects many body systems, and induces major alterations in metabolic, autonomic, and cerebral functions. Typically, OSA is characterized by recurrent chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), hypercapnia, hypoventilation, sleep fragmentation, peripheral and central inflammation, cerebral hypoperfusion, and cerebral glucose hypometabolism. Upregulation of oxidative stress in OSA plays an important pathogenic role in the milieu of hypoxia-induced cerebral and cardiovascular dysfunctions. Strong evidence underscores that cerebral amyloidogenesis and tau phosphorylation-two cardinal features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), are triggered by hypoxia. Mice subjected to hypoxic conditions unambiguously demonstrated upregulation in cerebral amyloid plaque formation and tau phosphorylation, as well as memory deficit. Hypoxia triggers neuronal degeneration and axonal dysfunction in both cortex and brainstem. Consequently, neurocognitive impairment in apneic/hypoxic patients is attributable to a complex interplay between CIH and stimulation of several pathological trajectories. The framework presented here helps delineate the emergence and progression of cognitive decline, and may yield insight into AD neuropathogenesis. The global impact of CIH should provide a strong rationale for treating OSA and snoring clinically, in order to ameliorate neurocognitive impairment in aged/AD patients.Neurotoxicity Research 02/2013; · 2.87 Impact Factor