MR and CT arthrography of the shoulder.
ABSTRACT The combined use of shoulder arthrography with MR and CT imaging offers distinct advantages over conventional nonarthrographic imaging techniques. The improved contrast and joint distension afforded by direct arthrography optimize evaluation of various intra-articular structures and help to define subtle abnormalities and distinguish normal variants from true shoulder pathology. In this article, we review the rationale and basic approaches to shoulder arthrography as well as the imaging appearance of the normal shoulder, anatomical variants, and pathology highlighted by this technique.
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ABSTRACT: Direct MR arthrography of the shoulder is a safe, relatively easy procedure that can increase diagnostic confidence in the evaluation of rotator cuff and labroligamentous disorders compared with conventional MR imaging of the shoulder. Surgeons more often request MR arthrography in younger patients who may have internal impingement or subtle shoulder subluxation rather than obvious cuff rupture, repeated dislocation, or arthropathy. This article describes the advances in glenohumeral injection and MR protocol techniques, imaging pitfalls, anatomical variants, common lesions associated with internal derangement of the shoulder, and MR arthrography of the postoperative shoulder.Seminars in musculoskeletal radiology 09/2014; 18(4):352-64. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to analyze the spatial resolution of different reconstruction kernels and acquisition protocols, including a prototypic high-resolution protocol in flat-panel (FP) and multidetector (MD) computed tomography (CT), and to evaluate contrast and artificial cartilage depiction quality of in vitro FPCT and MDCT arthrography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An image-quality cone beam phantom was used to compare resolution and different reconstruction kernels of the standard MDCT (120 and 80 kV) and the standard binned (2 × 2) and prototypic high-resolution unbinned (1 × 1) FPCT protocols (5- and 20-second runs each). With the resulting FPCT kernel best matching the standard MDCT kernel (U90u), artificial joint phantoms with differently sized groups of cartilage defects (2, 1, 0.5, and 0.3 mm in width) were then scanned using intra-articular iodinated contrast at 50 mgI/mL. In these joint phantoms, CT numbers and noise in the iodinated contrast and artificial cartilage tissue were measured and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated. Depiction quality of artificial cartilage defects was qualitatively rated by 2 independent radiologists. RESULTS: A sharp reconstruction kernel for all FPCT protocols suited best for matched resolution to the standard MDCT kernel. High-resolution 20-second 1 × 1 binning FPCT showed comparable resolution with MDCT in the range of 0.4 to 1.6 line pairs (lp) per millimeter with superior resolution in higher frequencies than 1.6 lp per millimeter (P < 0.001). Flat-panel computed tomographic 5-second runs were associated with higher image noise than the 20-second runs were. The CNR differed significantly among the protocols (P < 0.01) and was the highest in the 20-second FPCT, followed by the 5-second FPCT 2 × 2 and MDCT protocols. Interreader agreement for the depiction quality of artificial cartilage defects was substantial and high in the joint phantoms (0.74 and 0.81, respectively; P < 0.001). The best ratings of the artificial cartilage defect depiction quality were seen in the FPCT 20-second, followed by the FPCT 5-second and MDCT acquisitions. The depiction quality of smaller cartilage defects (1.0 and 1.67 lp per millimeter) was rated worst in the MDCT acquisitions. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro FPCT arthrography offers superior CNR and artificial cartilage defect depiction quality to MDCT, and spatial resolution for small structures is higher when applying high-resolution acquisition protocols. Flat-panel computed tomography, thus, has the potential to improve workflow, and tailored high-resolution protocols may allow for advanced cartilage evaluation in CT arthrography.Investigative radiology 03/2013; · 4.85 Impact Factor
Article: Postoperative MRI of the shoulder[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the postoperative shoulder presents technical and diagnostic challenges related to imaging artifacts from hardware and micrometallic shavings, postsurgical scarring, and morphological alterations. Improved visualization of postoperative shoulder anatomy and pathology can be obtained with the use of metal artifact reduction techniques as well as MR arthrography. In this article we review the MR techniques that are designed to address these technical and diagnostic challenges, and we discuss the definitions and indications, normal MRI appearance, and complications of routine surgical procedures for treatment of injuries to the rotator cuff, labral ligamentous complex, and biceps tendon. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 02/2014; 40(6). · 2.57 Impact Factor