Malachite green toxicity assessed on Asian catfish primary cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by a proteomic analysis

Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology-URBE, University of Namur-FUNDP, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur, Belgium.
Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (Impact Factor: 3.45). 02/2012; 114-115:142-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.02.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The potential genotoxic and carcinogenic properties reported for malachite green (MG) and the frequent detection of MG residues in fish and fish products, despite the ban of MG, have recently generated great concern. Additional toxicological data are required for a better understanding of the mechanism of action and a more comprehensive risk assessment for the exposure of fish to this fungicide. To date, the use of fish peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has not been exploited as a tool in the assessment of the toxicity of chemicals. However, PBMCs are exposed to toxicants and can be easily collected by blood sampling. The present study aims at better understanding the effects of MG by a proteomic analysis of primary cultured PBMC from the Asian catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, exposed to MG. The two lowest concentrations of 1 and 10 ppb were selected based on the MTS (water soluble tetrazolium salts) cytotoxicity test. Using a proteomic analysis (2D-DIGE), we showed that 109 proteins displayed significant changes in abundance in PBMC exposed during 48 h to MG. Most of these proteins were successfully identified by nano LC-MS/MS and validated through the Peptide and Protein Prophet of Scaffold™ software, but only 19 different proteins were considered corresponding to a single identification per spot. Our data suggest that low concentrations of MG could affect the mitochondrial metabolic functions, impair some signal transduction cascades and normal cell division, stimulate DNA repair and disorganize the cytoskeleton. Altogether, these results confirm that the mitochondrion is a target of MG toxicity. Further studies on the identified proteins are needed to better understand the mechanisms of MG toxicity in fish produced for human consumption.

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    • "MG is a cationic dye, an N-methylated diaminotriphenylmethane dye and has been widely used for the dyeing of leather, wool and silk, distilleries, jute, paper, cotton, leather, etc. [5], which is generally used as a strong anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-parasitical agent in aquaculture [6]. The powerful antimicrobial activity of MG has been attributed to inhibition of intracellular enzymes, intercalation into DNA, and/or interaction with cellular membranes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dyes released into the environment have been posing a serious threat to natural ecosystems and aquatic life due to presence of heat, light, chemical and other exposures stable. In this study, the Pleurotus ostreatus (a macro-fungus) was used as a new biosorbent to study the biosorption of hazardous malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The effective disposal of P. ostreatus is a meaningful work for environmental protection and maximum utilization of agricultural residues. The operational parameters such as biosorbent dose, pH, and ionic strength were investigated in a series of batch studies at 25°C. Freundlich isotherm model was described well for the biosorption equilibrium data. The biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Taguchi method was used to simplify the experimental number for determining the significance of factors and the optimum levels of experimental factors for MG biosorption. Biosorbent dose and initial MG concentration had significant influences on the percent removal and biosorption capacity. The highest percent removal reached 89.58% and the largest biosorption capacity reached 32.33 mg/g. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the functional groups such as, carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino and phosphonate groups on the biosorbent surface could be the potential adsorption sites for MG biosorption. P. ostreatus can be considered as an alternative biosorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions.
    Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering 03/2014; 12(1):63. DOI:10.1186/2052-336X-12-63 · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    • "In accordance with conservation biology considerations and because the new European Chemicals Legislation (REACh) is asking for alternatives to animal testing, a non-invasive methodology has been previously developed to obtain the post-nuclear fraction of isolated fish peripheral blood mononuclear cells before evaluation of the toxicity of xenobiotics by a proteomic approach (Pierrard et al., 2012a, 2012b). In the present work, both a chronic in vivo laboratory contamination (28 days of exposure ) of eels by PFOS and an in situ study have been carried out in order to assess the toxicological effects of PFOS in European eel PBMCs at the protein expression level. "
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    ABSTRACT: The decline of European eel population can be attributed to many factors such as pollution by xenobiotics present in domestic and industrial effluents. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a ubiquitous compound of a particular concern in Europe. PFOS can reach high concentrations in tissues of organisms and many toxic effects have been reported in fish. This study aimed at evaluating the toxicological effects of PFOS in European eel peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at the protein expression level. To identify proteins whose expression was modified by PFOS, we performed a proteomic analysis on the post-nuclear fraction of PBMCs after a chronic exposure (28days) of yellow eels to zero, 1 or 10μg/L PFOS. This in vivo study was completed by a proteomic field study on eels sampled in Belgian rivers presenting different PFOS pollution degrees. Proteins were separated by two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to compare the post-nuclear fraction of PBMCs from the reference group with cells from fish exposed to the pollutant of interest. On the 28 spots that were significantly (p<0.05; ANOVA followed by a Dunnett post-hoc test) affected by PFOS in the in vivo experiment, a total of 17 different proteins were identified using nano-LC ESI-MS/MS and the Peptide and Protein Prophet of Scaffold software. In the field experiment, 18 significantly (p<0.05; ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test) affected spots conducted to the identification of 16 different proteins. Interestingly, only three proteins were found in common between in vivo and in situ experiments: plastin-2, alpha-enolase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Comparing the results with a previous study, plastin-2 and alpha-enolase were also been found to be affected after in vitro exposure of PBMCs during 48h to either 10μg or 1mgPFOS/L. Potential use of these proteins as biomarkers of PFOS exposure in European eel could indicate early warning signals.
    Science of The Total Environment 10/2013; 468-469C:958-967. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.110 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The knowledge of DNA repair in a target species is of first importance as it is the primary line of defense against genotoxicants, and a better knowledge of DNA repair capacity in fish could help to interpret genotoxicity data and/or assist in the choice of target species, developmental stage and tissues to focus on, both for environmental biomonitoring studies and DNA repair testing. This review focuses in a first part on what is presently known on a mechanistic basis, about the various DNA repair systems in fish, in vivo and in established cell lines. Data on base excision repair (BER), direct reversal with O(6)-alkylguanine transferase and double strand breaks repair, although rather scarce, are being reviewed, as well as nucleotide excision repair (NER) and photoreactivation repair (PER), which are by far the most studied repair mechanisms in fish. Most of these repair mechanisms seem to be strongly species and tissue dependent; they also depend on the developmental stage of the organisms. BER is efficient in vivo, although no data has been found on in vitro models. NER activity is quite low or even inexistent depending on the studies; however this lack is partly compensated by a strong PER activity, especially in early developmental stage. In a second part, a survey of the ecotoxicological studies integrating DNA repair as a parameter responding to single or mixture of contaminant is realized. Three main approaches are being used: the measurement of DNA repair gene expression after exposure, although it has not yet been clearly established whether gene expression is indicative of repair capacity; the monitoring of DNA damage removal by following DNA repair kinetics; and the modulation of DNA repair activity following exposure in situ, in order to assess the impact of exposure history on DNA repair capacity. Since all DNA repair processes are possible targets for environmental pollutants, we can also wonder at which extent such a modulation of repair capacities in fish could be the base for the development of new biomarkers of genotoxicity. Knowing the importance of the germ cell DNA integrity in the reproductive success of aquatic organisms, the DNA repair capacity of such cells deserve to be more studied, as well as DNA repair capacities of established fish cell lines. The limited amount of available data, which shows low/slow DNA repair capacities of fish cell lines compared with mammalian cell lines, concerned mainly the NER system; thus this point merits to be explored more deeply. Additionally, since some of the DNA repair systems appear more efficient in embryo larval stages, it would be of interest to consider embryonic cell lineages more closely.
    Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 03/2013; 134-135C:47-56. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.03.005 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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