Proteome analysis of a CTR9 deficient yeast strain suggests that Ctr9 has function(s) independent of the Paf1 complex
ABSTRACT The Ctr9 protein is a member of the Paf1 complex implicated in multiple functions: transcription initiation and elongation by RNA pol II, RNA processing and histone modifications. It has also been described as a triple-helical DNA binding protein. Loss of Ctr9 results in severe phenotypes similar to the loss of Paf1p, a Paf1 complex subunit. However, the exact role of Ctr9 is not entirely established. To study the biological role of the protein Ctr9 in yeast, we used 2-D gel electrophoresis and characterized proteome alterations in a ctr9Δ mutant strain. Here we present results suggesting that Ctr9 has function distinct from its established role in the Paf1 complex. This role could be linked to its ability to bind to DNA complex structures as triplexes that may have function in regulation of gene expression.
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ABSTRACT: The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CLN3 protein, a G1 cyclin, positively regulates the expression of CLN1 and CLN2, two additional G1 cyclins whose expression during late G1 is activated, in part, by the transcription factors SWI4 and SWI6. We isolated 12 complementation groups of mutants that require CLN3. The members of one of these complementation groups have mutations in the BCK2 gene. In a wild-type CLN3 genetic background, bck2 mutants have a normal growth rate but have a larger cell size, are more sensitive to alpha-factor, and have a modest defect in the accumulation of CLN1 and CLN2 RNA. In the absence of CLN3, bck2 mutations cause an extremely slow growth rate: the cells accumulate in late G1 with very low levels of CLN1 and CLN2 RNA. The slow growth rate and long G1 delay of bck2 cln3 mutants are cured by heterologous expression of CLN2. Moreover, overexpression of BCK2 induces very high levels of CLN1, CLN2, and HCS26 RNAs. The results suggest that BCK2 and CLN3 provide parallel activation pathways for the expression of CLN1 and CLN2 during late G1.Molecular and Cellular Biology 05/1995; 15(4):1835-46. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Entry into the cell cycle in budding yeast involves transcriptional activation of G1cyclin genes and DNA synthesis genes when cells reach a critical size in late G1. Expression of G1cyclins CLN1 and CLN2 is regulated by the transcription factor SBF (composed of Swi4p and Swi6p) and depends on the cyclin-dependent Cdc28 protein kinase and cyclin Cln3p. To identify novel regulators of SBF-dependent gene expression we screened for mutants that fail to activate transcription of G1cyclins. We found mutations in a gene called CTR9. ctr9 mutants are inviable at 37 degrees C and accumulate large cells. CTR9 is identical to CDP1. CTR9 encodes a conserved nuclear protein of 125 kDa containing several TPR repeats implicated in protein-protein interactions. We show that Ctr9p is a component of a high molecular weight protein complex. Using immuno-affinity chromatography we found that Ctr9p associates with polypeptides of 50 and 65 kDa. By mass spectrometry these were identified as Cdc73p and Paf1p. We show that Paf1p, like Ctr9p, is required for efficient CLN2 transcription, whereas Cdc73p is not. Paf1p and Cdc73p were previously reported to be RNA poly-merase II-associated proteins, suggesting that the Ctr9p complex may interact with the general transcription apparatus.Nucleic Acids Research 06/1999; 27(10):2126-34. DOI:10.1093/nar/27.10.2126 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To identify new gene products involved in chromosome segregation, we isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that require centromere binding factor I (Cbf1p) for viability. One Cbf1p-dependent mutant (denoted cdp1-1) was selected for further analysis. The CDP1 gene encodes a novel 125-kD protein that is notably similar to previously identified mouse, human and Caenorhabditis elegans proteins. CDP1 delta and cdp1-1 mutant cells were temperature sensitive for growth. At the permissive temperature, cdp1-1 and cdp1 delta cells lost chromosomes at a frequencies approximately 20-fold and approximately 110-fold higher than wild-type cells, respectively. These mutants also displayed unusually long and numerous bundles of cytoplasmic microtubules as revealed by immunofluorescent staining. In addition, we occasionally observed improperly oriented mitotic spindles, residing entirely within one of the cells. Presumably as a result of undergoing nuclear division with improperly oriented spindles, a large percentage of cdp1 cells had accumulated multiple nuclei. While cdp1 mutant cells were hypersensitive to the microtubule-disrupting compound thiabendazole, they showed increased resistance to the closely related compound benomyl relative to wild-type cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Cdp1p plays a role in governing tubulin dynamics within the cell and may interact directly with microtubules or tubulin.Genetics 01/1997; 144(4):1387-97. · 5.96 Impact Factor