Effect of in utero exposure of iodinated intravenous contrast on neonatal thyroid function.
ABSTRACT Administration of radioactive iodine to a pregnant woman for thyroid ablation has been shown to affect neonatal thyroid levels. Thus, there is a theoretical risk in affecting a neonate's thyroid level upon birth with prior administration of intravenous contrast containing iodine to a pregnant woman during a computed tomographic scan. However, there is no literature to support this theoretical risk. This study attempted to determine if there is any effect on a newborn's thyroid levels after exposure to this type of contrast material in utero.
The medical charts of 96 pregnant women during the years 2004 through 2009 on whom computed tomographic scans were performed were reviewed. A total of 29 charts were excluded secondary to missing neonatal records, missed abortions, and intrauterine fetal demise. The rest were subdivided into those who received intravenous (IV) ± oral contrast material and those who did not. The medical records of the newborns of these patients were also reviewed. The subject group consisted of 61 pregnant women who received IV ± oral contrast and their 64 neonates. The control group consisted of 6 pregnant patients who did not receive IV contrast and their 6 neonates.
Of the 64 neonates in the subject group, only one neonate was found to have a low thyroxine level with a normal thyroid stimulating hormone level. This infant was severely premature, being born at the 25th week of gestation, and developed respiratory distress syndrome and sepsis, which were potential confounding factors. All of the 6 neonates in the control group had normal thyroid levels.
This study concludes that there is no significant adverse clinical risk of thyroid function abnormalities to the fetus after IV iodinated contrast material to their mothers.
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ABSTRACT: The pregnant trauma patient presents an important and challenging encounter for the clinical team and radiologist. In this article, we present several key aspects of the imaging workup of pregnant trauma patients, beginning with a review of the modalities that are used in this setting. Ultrasonography plays an important role in initial evaluation of the fetus but a limited role in evaluation of maternal injuries. Given that conventional radiography and computed tomography are the "workhorse" modalities for evaluation of pregnant trauma patients, radiologists must pay particular attention to radiation dose concerns. Magnetic resonance imaging can be used after the initial evaluation and for follow-up imaging, and safety concerns related to its use in pregnant patients are addressed. At imaging interpretation, radiologists must contend not only with the typical spectrum of injuries that can be seen in any trauma patient but also with pregnancy-specific injuries, such as placental abruption and uterine rupture. Particularly unusual situations, such as a ruptured ectopic pregnancy in a trauma patient, are presented. Although pregnant trauma patients are infrequently encountered, familiarity with imaging findings of injuries in these patients is essential to providing the best care for the mother and fetus. © RSNA, 2014.Radiographics 34(3):748-63. · 2.79 Impact Factor
Article: Consequences of excess iodine.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 µg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent.Nature Reviews Endocrinology 12/2013; · 11.03 Impact Factor