Estrogen regulates JNK1 genomic localization to control gene expression and cell growth in breast cancer cells.
ABSTRACT Steroid hormone and MAPK signaling pathways functionally intersect, but the molecular mechanisms of this cross talk are unclear. Here, we demonstrate a functional convergence of the estrogen and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) signaling pathways at the genomic level in breast cancer cells. We find that JNK1 binds to many promoters across the genome. Although most of the JNK1-binding sites are constitutive, a subset is estrogen regulated (either induced on inhibited). At the estrogen-induced sites, estrogen receptor (ER)α is required for the binding of JNK1 by promoting its recruitment to estrogen response elements or other classes of DNA elements through a tethering mechanism, which in some cases involves activating protein-1. At estrogen-regulated promoters, JNK1 functions as a transcriptional coregulator of ERα in a manner that is dependent on its kinase activity. The convergence of ERα and JNK1 at target gene promoters regulates estrogen-dependent gene expression outcomes, as well as downstream estrogen-dependent cell growth responses. Analysis of existing gene expression profiles from breast cancer biopsies suggests a role for functional interplay between ERα and JNK1 in the progression and clinical outcome of breast cancers.
Article: Network Motifs in JNK Signaling.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multiple growth factors and extracellular signals can lead to activation of the c-Jun amino N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway. Activation of JNK can in turn lead to a multitude of downstream changes in phosphorylation and transcriptional activation within the cell. Mapping the upstream and downstream connectivity within the JNK network reveals an enrichment of bi-fan and feed-forward network motifs formed immediately upstream and downstream of JNK. In addition, negative feedback loops also exist through transcriptional activation of phosphatases that target the JNK pathway. The combinations of these motifs allow flexibility and tunability in signal integration and processing within the JNK network and may confer the wide range of biological responses that can be regulated by JNK activation. In this review, we highlight the pathways and motifs leading to JNK activation and its downstream signaling as well as the complexity in isoforms within this network.Genes & cancer 09/2013; 4(9-10):409-413.
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ABSTRACT: Injury is an inescapable phenomenon of life that affects animals at every physiological level. Yet, some animals respond to injury by rebuilding the damaged tissues whereas others are limited to scarring. Elucidating how a tissue insult from wounding leads to a regenerative response at the genetic level is essential to make regenerative advantages translational. It has become clear that animals with regenerative abilities recycle developmental programs after injury, reactivating genes that have lied dormant throughout adulthood. The question that is critical to our understanding of regeneration is how a specific set of developmentally important genes can be reactivated only after an acute tissue insult. Here, we review how injury-induced cellular stresses such as hypoxic, oxidative, and mechanical stress may contribute to the genomic and epigenetic changes that promote regeneration in animals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stress as a fundamental theme in cell plasticity.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 07/2014; · 5.44 Impact Factor
Article: Chromatin-tethered MAPKs.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of protein kinases that are essential nodes in many cellular regulatory circuits including those that take place on DNA. Most members of the four MAPK subgroups that exist in canonical three kinase cascades-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), ERK5, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1-3), and p38 (α, β, γ, and δ) families-have been shown to perform regulatory functions on chromatin. This review offers a brief update on the variety of processes that involve MAPKs and available mechanisms garnered in the last two years.Current opinion in cell biology 02/2013; · 14.15 Impact Factor