Estrogen regulates JNK1 genomic localization to control gene expression and cell growth in breast cancer cells.
ABSTRACT Steroid hormone and MAPK signaling pathways functionally intersect, but the molecular mechanisms of this cross talk are unclear. Here, we demonstrate a functional convergence of the estrogen and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) signaling pathways at the genomic level in breast cancer cells. We find that JNK1 binds to many promoters across the genome. Although most of the JNK1-binding sites are constitutive, a subset is estrogen regulated (either induced on inhibited). At the estrogen-induced sites, estrogen receptor (ER)α is required for the binding of JNK1 by promoting its recruitment to estrogen response elements or other classes of DNA elements through a tethering mechanism, which in some cases involves activating protein-1. At estrogen-regulated promoters, JNK1 functions as a transcriptional coregulator of ERα in a manner that is dependent on its kinase activity. The convergence of ERα and JNK1 at target gene promoters regulates estrogen-dependent gene expression outcomes, as well as downstream estrogen-dependent cell growth responses. Analysis of existing gene expression profiles from breast cancer biopsies suggests a role for functional interplay between ERα and JNK1 in the progression and clinical outcome of breast cancers.
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ABSTRACT: Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) show differential effects upon ERalpha activation function 1 (AF-1). Tamoxifen allows strong ERalpha AF-1 activity, whereas raloxifene allows less and ICI 182,780 (ICI) allows none. Here, we show that blockade of corepressor histone de-acetylase (HDAC) activity reverses the differential inhibitory effect of SERMs upon AF-1 activity in MCF-7 cells. This suggests that differential SERM repression of AF-1 involves HDAC-dependent corepressors. Consistent with this, ICI and raloxifene are more potent than tamoxifen in promoting ERalpha-dependent sequestration of progesterone receptor-associated corepressors. Moreover, ICI and raloxifene are more efficient than tamoxifen in promoting ERalpha binding to the corepressor N-CoR in vivo and in vitro. An ERalpha mutation (537X) that increases N-CoR binding in the presence of all SERMs blocks AF-1 activity. An ERalpha mutation (L379R) that decreases N-CoR binding increases AF-1 activity in the presence of ICI and raloxifene and reverses the effect of the 537X mutation. The 537X and L379R mutations also alter the ligand preference of ERalpha action at AP-1 sites and C3 complement, an action that also involves AF-1. Together, our results suggest that differential SERM effects on corepressor binding can explain differences in SERM effects on ERalpha activity. We propose a model for differential effects of SERMs on N-CoR binding.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2003; 278(9):6912-20. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The transactivating function of the c-Jun proto-oncogene component of the AP-1 transcription factor is acutely regulated by a wide variety of cellular signals via modulation of phosphorylation of two serines (63 and 73). The viral oncoprotein, v-Jun, while containing homologous serines, is not phosphorylated in cells. A novel family of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), also termed Jun N-terminal domain kinases (JNKs), are responsible for mediating S63/73 phosphorylation in response to a variety of cellular stimuli including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, heat stress and u.v. light. The p54 alpha 1, alpha 2, p54 beta and p46 beta SAPKs are shown to bind directly to c-Jun but not to v-Jun, with an absolute requirement for c-Jun amino acids 31-47, a region deleted in v-Jun. Inactive SAPKs tightly bind c-Jun in resting cells and may be a manifestation of the 'delta' inhibitor, a previously described repressor of c-Jun function.Oncogene 04/1995; 10(5):849-55. · 7.36 Impact Factor
Article: The estrogen receptor family.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A significant flow of new data is currently being generated within the field of estrogen receptors and their mechanisms of action. This is primarily a result of the development of estrogen receptor knockout mice and the discovery of the second estrogen receptor, estrogen receptor beta. Both estrogen receptors appear to be involved in a multitude of regulatory events, the details of which will be worked out within the next few years. Estrogen receptor alpha appears to play a major role in the regulation of reproductive events and estrogen receptor alpha knockout female mice are completely infertile. Estrogen receptor beta knockout females have severe but incomplete infertility. Estrogen receptor beta gene mutations may, therefore, be of great clinical interest because they could perhaps explain some cases in which ovarian dysfunction leads to human infertility. Both receptors appear to be of essence for the cardiovascular system. Future studies will determine the relative importance of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in bone, the urogenital tract, the immune system, and the central nervous system, as well as in other estrogen target tissues.Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology 07/1999; 11(3):249-54. · 2.64 Impact Factor