Pathologic prostate cancer characteristics in patients eligible for active surveillance: a head-to-head comparison of contemporary protocols.
ABSTRACT Although the rationale for active surveillance (AS) in patients with low-risk prostate cancer is well established, eligibility criteria vary significantly across different programs.
To compare the ability of contemporary AS criteria to identify patients with certain pathologic tumor features based on the results of an extended transrectal prostate biopsy.
The study cohort included 391 radical prostatectomy patients who had prostate cancer with Gleason scores ≤ 6 on transrectal biopsy with ≥ 10 cores.
Radical prostatectomy without neoadjuvant treatment. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We identified patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of five AS protocols including those of Epstein, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS), University of California, San Francisco, and University of Miami (UM). We evaluated the ability of these criteria to predict three pathologic end points: insignificant disease defined using a classical and updated formulation, and organ-confined Gleason ≤ 6 prostate cancer. Measures of diagnostic accuracy and areas under the receiver operating curve were calculated for each protocol and compared.
A total of 75% of the patients met the inclusion criteria of at least one protocol; 23% were eligible for AS by all studied criteria. The PRIAS and UM criteria had the best balance between sensitivity and specificity for both definitions of insignificant prostate cancer and a higher discriminative ability for the end points than any criteria including patients with two or more positive cores. The Epstein criteria demonstrated high specificity but low sensitivity for all pathologic end points, and therefore the discriminative ability was not superior to those of other protocols.
Significant variations exist in the ability of contemporary AS criteria to predict pathologically insignificant prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy. These differences should be taken into account when making treatment choices in patients with low-risk prostate cancer.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the impact of 3-month androgen deprivation therapy (st-ADT) a secondary chemoprevention of indolent-localized prostate cancer (PCa). A prospective phase II study enrolled men over 4 years with low-risk PCa and the following characteristics: PSA < 10 ng/mL, Gleason score of 6 (3 + 3) or less, three positive cores or less, and tumor stage T2a or less. Patients received a single sub-cutaneous injection of 22.5 mg of leuprolide acetate with Atrigel 3-month depot associated with a daily oral intake of bicalutamide 50 mg/day during 15 days around the injection. Follow-up included PSA and bioavailable testosterone blood tests every 3 months and yearly surveillance biopsies. Primary end point was the presence of PCa on biopsy at last follow-up. Secondary end points were detailed pathological features and adverse events. Overall, 98 men were included and 45 of them (45.9 %) had a negative biopsy after a median follow-up of 13 months [11-19.5]. Of the 53 patients with positive biopsy, 17 had pathologic progression because of upgraded Gleason score (11 patients), four or more positive cores (three patients) or both (three patients). The only significant predictive factor biopsy outcome was the number of positive cores at diagnosis. Secondary chemoprevention by st-ADT for localized PCa could be useful to pinpoint indolent tumors suitable for AS. Indeed, after st-ADT nearly one patient out of two had negative biopsies and 17 % had pathological progression. This is an innovative option to consider as an alternative to current AS protocols contingent upon confirmation in subsequent studies.World Journal of Urology 10/2013; · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The increase of prostate cancer diagnosis after the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening resulted in overtreatment of patients with low risk tumors. The histological Gleason score (GS) revised in 2005 by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) is currently the most reliable tool to separate aggressive from indolent prostate cancer. Using the new 2005 GS criteria we retrospectively evaluated biopsy and surgical samples of 1344 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy in our institution. According to the new GS criteria we then selected 134 patients who would have been suitable for active surveillance at the time of biopsy (at least 2 positive cores, PSA < 10 ng/mL, GS ≤ 6). We finally assessed the accuracy of the revised GS in biopsy to predict indolent cancer in the prostatectomy specimens. The mean GS increased from 6 to 7 after histological revision in biopsy and prostatectomy specimens. Histological revision determined a significant decrease of patients with GS ≤ 6 and an increase of those with GS ≥ 7 (all P < .001). The average of pathologically indolent disease (organ-confined, GS ≤ 6 at surgery, tumor of any volume) significantly decreased after histological revision (P < .001). The revised ISUP 2005 criteria for Gleason grading provided better stratification of GS ≤ 6 prostate cancer and improved the accuracy for the histological diagnosis of indolent prostate cancer in biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens.Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 01/2014; · 1.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Active surveillance (AS) is one potential solution to avoiding the overtreatment of favorable prostate cancer. By handling the AS strategy more safely, tumor aggressiveness may be evaluated more accurately. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive impact of baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA)-related indices on the pathological reclassification at 1 year during an AS program. Between 2002 and 2003, 134 males diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer were registered in the Japanese multicenter study cohort as candidates for AS, and 118 (88 %) males actually proceeded to AS. Of the 118 patients, the 67 that underwent protocol biopsy at 1 year after beginning AS were enrolled in the present study. The predictive significance of various baseline clinicopathological features and p2PSA-related indices on pathological reclassification at 1 year after beginning AS were investigated. The pathological reclassification rate was 37.3 %. According to the univariate analysis, prostate volume (p = 0.049), number of biopsy cores (p = 0.047), percentage of positive biopsy cores (p = 0.023), p2PSA to free PSA ratio (%p2PSA) (p = 0.003) and prostate health index (phi) (p = 0.010) at baseline were significantly different between the reclassification and non-reclassification groups. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, baseline %p2PSA (p = 0.008) and phi (p = 0.008) were the only independent predictive factors for pathological upgrade at 1 year after AS commencement. Baseline %p2PSA and phi may predict the pathological reclassification at 1 year after starting AS, which could be due to the under detection of clinically significant prostate cancer at AS enrollment.Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 12/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor