A randomized trial of copper supplementation effects on blood copper enzyme activities and parameters related to cardiovascular health
ABSTRACT Marginal copper deficiency, which may affect cardiovascular disease risk, is proposed to occur in many adults in Western industrialized countries. The present study tested the hypothesis that in a group of USA adults, increased copper intake would alter readings for blood copper enzymes and markers relevant to cardiovascular disease risk. Healthy middle aged adults with moderately high cholesterol, were given either placebo or copper supplementation (2 mg copper/day as copper glycinate) for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken before and after the 8 weeks. Copper, but not placebo, raised activities for two copper enzymes, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase 1 and plasma ceruloplasmin. In contrast, five cardiovascular health related plasma parameters were not changed significantly by copper: C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and cholesterol (total, LDL and HDL). However, changes in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase 1 correlated positively with changes in plasma HDL and negatively with plasma homocysteine. Also, copper lowered mean oxidized LDL values, a result that was statistically significant, but inconsistent. In this test population, increased copper intake raised copper enzyme activities, but did not consistently improve the cardiovascular health measures studied.
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ABSTRACT: Copper (Cu) deficiency has been reported to influence lipid metabolism, but the effects in humans are controversial. To evaluate the effects of 8 mg Cu/day supplementation (as copper sulfate) for 6 months on the lipid profile and hepatic function of apparently healthy men. The design was randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects and methods: 60 apparently healthy males aged 18-51 years were randomly assigned to Cu supplementation (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30). There was a nonsignificant reduction of 17 % in total cholesterol in both groups after supplementation. A 23 % nonsignificant reduction was observed in LDL cholesterol levels in the supplemented group. There was a nonsignificant increase of HDL cholesterol of 47 and 66 % in the control and supplemented groups, respectively. Triglyceride levels over 150 mg/dl were found in 17 subjects supplemented and 13 controls at baseline and decreased after supplementation to seven and eight subjects, respectively. There were no effects on serum Cu concentration or ceruloplasmin (protein) and hepatic transaminases. Supplementation of 8 mg Cu for 6 months had no effect on lipid profile of apparently healthy Chilean men with adequate Cu status.Biological trace element research 10/2013; DOI:10.1007/s12011-013-9823-4
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ABSTRACT: One of the factors contributing to the increased risk of developing premature atherosclerosis is low plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Multiple potential mechanisms account for the cardioprotective effects of HDL and its main protein apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I). Diet has an important role in modulating HDL cholesterol level. The widespread use of nutritional supplements may also alter the biology of HDL. In this review, we discuss the effect of select nutritional supplements on serum HDL cholesterol and apo A-I levels. Some nutritional supplements, such as phytosterols, soy proteins, and black seed extracts, may increase HDL cholesterol levels, while others such as cholic acid and high doses of commonly used antioxidant vitamins may downregulate HDL cholesterol levels and reduce its cardioprotection. Multiple mechanisms are involved in the regulation of HDL levels, so changes in production and clearance of HDL may have different clinical implications. The clinical relevance of the changes in HDL and apo A-I caused by nutrient supplementation needs to be tested in controlled clinical trials.American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s40256-014-0068-1
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ABSTRACT: Altered levels of selenium and copper have been linked with altered cardiovascular disease risk factors including changes in blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels. However, it is unclear whether this can be observed prenatally. This cross-sectional study includes 274 singleton births from 2004 to 2005 in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured umbilical cord serum selenium and copper using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We evaluated exposure levels vis-à-vis umbilical cord serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations in multivariable regression models adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, race, parity, smoking, prepregnancy body mass index, n-3 fatty acids and methyl mercury. The percent difference in triglycerides comparing those in the highest v. lowest quartile of selenium was 22.3%(95% confidence interval (CI): 7.1, 39.7). For copper this was 43.8% (95% CI: 25.9, 64.3). In multivariable models including both copper and seleniumas covariates, copper, but not selenium, maintained a statistically significant association with increased triglycerides (percent difference: 40.7%, 95% CI: 22.1, 62.1). There was limited evidence of a relationship of increasing selenium with increasing total cholesterol. Our findings provide evidence that higher serum copper levels are associated with higher serum triglycerides in newborns, but should be confirmed in larger studies.Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 04/2014; 5(4):281-287. DOI:10.1017/S2040174414000233