The chemistry of the sulfur-gold interface: in search of a unified model.
ABSTRACT Over the last three decades, self-assembled molecular films on solid surfaces have attracted widespread interest as an intellectual and technological challenge to chemists, physicists, materials scientists, and biologists. A variety of technological applications of nanotechnology rely on the possibility of controlling topological, chemical, and functional features at the molecular level. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) composed of chemisorbed species represent fundamental building blocks for creating complex structures by a bottom-up approach. These materials take advantage of the flexibility of organic and supramolecular chemistry to generate synthetic surfaces with well-defined chemical and physical properties. These films already serve as structural or functional parts of sensors, biosensors, drug-delivery systems, molecular electronic devices, protecting capping for nanostructures, and coatings for corrosion protection and tribological applications. Thiol SAMs on gold are the most popular molecular films because the resulting oxide-free, clean, flat surfaces can be easily modified both in the gas phase and in liquid media under ambient conditions. In particular, researchers have extensively studied SAMs on Au(111) because they serve as model systems to understand the basic aspects of the self-assembly of organic molecules on well-defined metal surfaces. Also, great interest has arisen in the surface structure of thiol-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) because of simple synthesis methods that produce highly monodisperse particles with controllable size and a high surface/volume ratio. These features make AuNPs very attractive for technological applications in fields ranging from medicine to heterogeneous catalysis. In many applications, the structure and chemistry of the sulfur-gold interface become crucial since they control the system properties. Therefore, many researchers have focused on understanding of the nature of this interface on both planar and nanoparticle thiol-covered surfaces. However, despite the considerable theoretical and experimental efforts made using various sophisticated techniques, the structure and chemical composition of the sulfur-gold interface at the atomic level remains elusive. In particular, the search for a unified model of the chemistry of the S-Au interface illustrates the difficulty of determining the surface chemistry at the nanoscale. This Account provides a state-of-the-art analysis of this problem and raises some questions that deserve further investigation.
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ABSTRACT: There is no comparative data available on the binding constants of Concanavalin A (Con A) and glycogen and Con A-mannan using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), cost and time efficient system for biosensor analysis. It is hypothesized that a QCM can be used in its flow injection mode to monitor the binding affinity of polysaccharides to an immobilized lectin, Con A. The biosensor is prepared by immobilizing Con A on a 5MHz gold crystal by carbodiimide crosslinking chemistry. The attachment efficiency is monitored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Equilibrium association and dissociation constants describing Con A-polysaccharides interaction are determined in a saturation binding experiment, where increasing concentrations of polysaccharides are run on a Con A-immobilized gold crystal surface, and the frequency shifts recorded on the frequency counter. The molecular weights (MW) of glycogen from Oyster and mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae are determined by size exclusion chromatography. The MW for glycogen and mannan are 604±0.002kDa and 54±0.002kDa, respectively. The equilibrium association and dissociation constants for Con A-glycogen and Con A-mannan interactions are KA=3.93±0.7×10(6)M(-1)/KD=0.25±0.06μM and (n=3), respectively. Their respective frequency and motional resistance shifts relationship (ΔF/ΔR) are 37.29±1.55 and 34.86±0.85Hz/Ω (n=3), which support the validity of Sauerbrey׳s rigidity approximation. This work suggests that Con A-mannan complex could be potentially utilized for insulin delivery and the targeting of glucose-rich substances and glycoproteins when fast drug release is desired.Biosensors & bioelectronics 03/2014; 59C:404-411. · 5.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In an effort to understand the effects of the molecular structures of self-assembled monolayers on the patterns formed by immobilized Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), we characterized and compared the morphologies and properties of AuNPs adsorbed onto self-assembled monolayers formed by 1-dodecanethiol (DDT-SAM) or 4-methylbenzenethiol (MBT-SAM) assembled on Au(111) surfaces. The AuNP adsorption pattern on the MBT-SAM surface was well-dispersed and characterized by a low degree of corrugation. By contrast, an aggregated and highly corrugated AuNP pattern was observed on the surface of the DDT-SAM. This difference was attributed to the retention or removal of citrate anions present on the AuNPs during adsorption onto the SAM surface. Direct interactions between the AuNPs and the highly corrugated hydrophobic surfaces of the DDT-SAMs could strip the citrate layers from the AuNP surfaces, leading to aggregated adsorption. The water molecules appeared to mediate the adsorption of the AuNPs by reducing the hydrophobicity of the MBT-SAM surface and promoting a more dispersed adsorption configuration.Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 07/2014; 425:83-90. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The modification of surfaces by the deposition of a robust overlayer provides an excellent handle with which to tune the properties of a bulk substrate to those of interest. Such control over the surface properties becomes increasingly important with the continuing efforts at down-sizing the active components in optoelectronic devices, and the corresponding increase in the surface area/volume ratio. Relevant properties to tune include the degree to which a surface is wetted by water or oil. Analogously, for biosensing applications there is an increasing interest in so-called "romantic surfaces": surfaces that repel all biological entities, apart from one, to which it binds strongly. Such systems require both long lasting and highly specific tuning of the surface properties. This Review presents one approach to obtain robust surface modifications of the surface of oxides, namely the covalent attachment of monolayers.Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English 05/2014; 53(25):6322–6356. · 13.45 Impact Factor