The effect of vitamin E and plant extract mixture composed of carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsaicin on oxidative stress induced by high PUFA load in young pigs.
ABSTRACT The objective of our study was to determine the antioxidative potential of a plant extract (PE) mixture composed of carvacrol, capsicum oleoresin and cinnamaldehyde against high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-induced oxidative stress in young pigs. Thirty-two weaned castrated male crossbred pigs (BW 10.9 kg; n = 32) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 8). The negative control diet (Cont) contained 17.2% energy from fat. Oxidative stress was induced in three of the four experimental groups with the inclusion of n-3 PUFA rich linseed oil. Linseed oil substituted wheat starch in the diet to elevate the amount of energy from fat to 34.1%. One of these diets served as a positive control (Oil), one was additionally supplemented with 271.2 mg/kg of PE mixture and one with 90.4 mg/kg α-tocopheryl acetate (Vit E). After 14 days of treatment, blood and urine were collected for the determination of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation was studied by plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, 24 h urinary MDA and F2-isoprostane (iPF2α-VI) excretion, total antioxidant status of plasma and glutathione peroxidase assays. Lymphocyte DNA fragmentation and 24 h urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion were measured to determine DNA damage. Consumption of n-3 PUFA rich linseed oil increased the amount of MDA in plasma and urine, and induced DNA damage in lymphocytes, but did not elevate the amount of iPF2α-VI excreted in the urine. The supplementation with PE and with Vit E did not reduce MDA levels in plasma and urine, but it decreased the percentage of DNA damage in lymphocytes (P < 0.001). The PE reduced the urinary iPF2α-VI excretion in comparison to the Cont diet. The results show that PE and Vit E supplemented to pigs in concentrations of 271.2 mg/kg and 90.4 mg/kg, respectively, can effectively protect pig's blood lymphocytes against oxidative DNA damage, thus suggesting their potentially beneficial effects on the immune system under dietary-induced oxidative stress.