ABSTRACT Hyperthyroidism describes the sustained increase in thyroid hormone biosynthesis and secretion by a thyroid gland with increased metabolism. Although the use of radioiodine scanning serves as a useful surrogate that may help characterize the cause of thyrotoxicosis, it only indirectly addresses the underlying physiologic mechanism driving the increase in serum thyroid hormones. In this article, thyrotoxic states are divided into increased or decreased thyroid metabolic function. In addition to the diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment of the various causes of hyperthyroidism, a section on functional imaging and appropriate laboratory testing is included.
Article: Pain and thyroid hormones.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The role of endocrine systems in chronic pain mechanisms is slowly getting increasing experimental and clinical consideration. Many painful conditions appear to be directly and/or indirectly induced, reduced or, in some cases, modulated by hormones. We have done much work in trying to understand the relationship between hormones and pain, with particular attention to the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. To expand our knowledge of this field, we have directed our attention to another axis, the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT). The literature on thyroid functions is vast but very few studies have focused on the HPT axis and pain. The few available data are considered in the present review to stimulate interest in the possible interactions between the HPT axis and pain.Neurological Sciences 04/2013; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abnormal conditions of the thyroid and parathyroid in the guinea pig appear in the English-language scientific literature on an emerging basis. Although true descriptions of abnormal thyroid and parathyroid anatomy or morphology are not new findings, the clinical condition of abnormal thyroid or parathyroid function seems to be a more common observation by clinicians in recent years. This article is an overview of general clinical conditions and adequate diagnosis, and offers treatment options.Veterinary Clinics of North America Exotic Animal Practice 05/2013; 16(2):407-20.