Design of clinical trials in acute kidney injury: a report from an NIDDK workshop--prevention trials.
ABSTRACT AKI is an important clinical problem that has become increasingly more common. Mortality rates associated with AKI remain high despite advances in supportive care. Patients surviving AKI have increased long-term mortality and appear to be at increased risk of developing CKD and progressing to ESRD. No proven effective pharmacologic therapies are currently available for the prevention or treatment of AKI. Advances in addressing this unmet need will require the development of novel therapeutic agents based on precise understanding of key pathophysiological events and the implementation of well designed clinical trials. To address this need, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases sponsored the "Clinical Trials in Acute Kidney Injury: Current Opportunities and Barriers" workshop in December 2010. The event brought together representatives from academia, industry, the National Institutes of Health, and the US Food and Drug Administration. We report the discussions of workgroups that developed outlines of clinical trials for the prevention of AKI in two patient populations: patients undergoing elective surgery who are at risk for or who develop AKI, and patients who are at risk for contrast-induced AKI. In both of these populations, primary prevention or secondary therapy can be delivered at an optimal time relative to kidney injury. The workgroups detailed primary and secondary endpoints for studies in these groups, and explored the use of adaptive clinical trial designs for trials of novel preventive strategies to improve outcomes of patients with AKI.
SourceAvailable from: Lakhmir S Chawla[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Clinicians have access to limited tools that predict which patients with early AKI will progress to more severe stages. In early AKI, urine output after a furosemide stress test (FST), which involves intravenous administration of furosemide (1.0 or 1.5 mg/kg), can predict the development of stage 3 AKI. We measured several AKI biomarkers in our previously published cohort of 77 patients with early AKI who received an FST and evaluated the ability of FST urine output and biomarkers to predict the development of stage 3 AKI (n=25 [32.5%]), receipt of RRT (n=11 [14.2%]), or inpatient mortality (n=16 [20.7%]). With an area under the curve (AUC)±SEM of 0.87±0.09 (P<0.0001), 2-hour urine output after FST was significantly better than each urinary biomarker tested in predicting progression to stage 3 (P<0.05). FST urine output was the only biomarker to significantly predict RRT (0.86±0.08; P=0.001). Regardless of the end point, combining FST urine output with individual biomarkers using logistic regression did not significantly improve risk stratification (ΔAUC, P>0.10 for all). When FST urine output was assessed in patients with increased biomarker levels, the AUC for progression to stage 3 improved to 0.90±0.06 and the AUC for receipt of RRT improved to 0.91±0.08. Overall, in the setting of early AKI, FST urine output outperformed biochemical biomarkers for prediction of progressive AKI, need for RRT, and inpatient mortality. Using a FST in patients with increased biomarker levels improves risk stratification, although further research is needed. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2015; DOI:10.1681/ASN.2014060535 · 9.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Severity of AKI is determined by the magnitude of increase in serum creatinine level or decrease in urine output. However, patients manifesting both oliguria and azotemia and those in which these impairments are persistent are more likely to have worse disease. Thus, we investigated the relationship of AKI severity and duration across creatinine and urine output domains with the risk for RRT and likelihood of renal recovery and survival using a large, academic medical center database of critically ill patients. We analyzed electronic records from 32,045 patients treated between 2000 and 2008, of which 23,866 (74.5%) developed AKI. We classified patients by levels of serum creatinine and/or urine output according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes staging criteria for AKI. In-hospital mortality and RRT rates increased from 4.3% and 0%, respectively, for no AKI to 51.1% and 55.3%, respectively, when serum creatinine level and urine output both indicated stage 3 AKI. Both short- and long-term outcomes were worse when patients had any stage of AKI defined by both criteria. Duration of AKI was also a significant predictor of long-term outcomes irrespective of severity. We conclude that short- and long-term risk of death or RRT is greatest when patients meet both the serum creatinine level and urine output criteria for AKI and when these abnormalities persist. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2015; DOI:10.1681/ASN.2014070724 · 9.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We showed previously that prior exposure to a modified ultrasound regimen prevents kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) likely via the splenic cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR). However, it is unclear how ultrasound stimulates the splenic CAP. Further investigating the role of the spleen in ischemic injury, we found that prior splenectomy (-7d) or chemical sympathectomy of the spleen with 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA; -14d) exacerbated injury after subthreshold (24-minute ischemia) IRI. 6-OHDA-induced splenic denervation also prevented ultrasound-induced protection of kidneys from moderate (26-minute ischemia) IRI. Ultrasound-induced protection required hematopoietic but not parenchymal α7nAChRs, as shown by experiments in bone marrow chimeras generated with wild-type and α7nAChR(-/-) mice. Ultrasound protection was associated with reduced expression of circulating and kidney-derived cytokines. However, splenocytes isolated from mice 24 hours after ultrasound treatment released more IL-6 ex vivo in response to LPS than splenocytes from sham mice. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes from ultrasound-treated (but not sham) mice to naïve mice was sufficient to protect kidneys of recipient mice from IRI. Ultrasound treatment 24 hours before cecal ligation puncture-induced sepsis was effective in reducing plasma creatinine in this model of AKI. Thus, splenocytes of ultrasound-treated mice are capable of modulating IRI in vivo, supporting our ongoing hypothesis that a modified ultrasound regimen has therapeutic potential for AKI and other inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.