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    ABSTRACT: Raltegravir has demonstrated potent and durable efficacy and a favorable safety profile in 3 phase III studies in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients with HIV-1 infection. This manuscript provides a review of the raltegravir safety profile using data from these and other studies in the clinical development program. Comprehensive 96-week safety data from STARTMRK (raltegravir versus efavirenz, each with tenofovir/emtricitabine) and BENCHMRK (raltegravir versus placebo, each with optimized background therapy) are summarized. A cumulative meta-analysis of raltegravir 400 mg bid was conducted across the entire development program. In STARTMRK, drug-related adverse events (AEs) occurred less frequently with raltegravir than efavirenz. In BENCHMRK, the most common drug-related AEs occurred at generally similar frequencies in both groups. Drug-related serious AEs were uncommon. Rash was observed in raltegravir-treated patients at a higher frequency than placebo but a lower frequency than efavirenz. Depression and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome occurred at similar rates for raltegravir and comparators. Isolated elevations of creatine kinase were more common with raltegravir than placebo but occurred without clinical manifestations. The frequency of aminotransferase elevations was greater in patients with viral hepatitis co-infection, but similar in the raltegravir and comparator groups. The relative risk (95% CI) of cancer was 0.75 (0.30, 1.91) indicating no difference between raltegravir and comparator. Overall trends in the cumulative meta-analysis were similar to those observed in the phase III studies. Long-term data from the phase III clinical trials demonstrate that raltegravir was generally well-tolerated in both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients with HIV infection.
    Current HIV research 01/2011; 9(1):40-53. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The SCOLTA project (Surveillance Cohort Long-term Toxicity Antiretrovirals) is a system for online surveying of adverse reactions to recently commercialized antiretroviral drugs and a "sentinel" for unexpected and late adverse reactions arising during any antiretroviral treatment (available at: http://www.cisai.info). To date, 25 Italian departments of infectious diseases have participated at the project. The New Drugs Project is a prospective, multicenter, observational pharmacovigilance study involving 1 cohort of patients for each new drug. All patients who were consecutively started on lopinavir (LPV), tenofovir (TDF), peginterferon (IFN), atazanavir (ATZ), enfuvirtide (T-20), and tipranavir (TPV) were enrolled. All grade III or IV adverse events (according to the AIDS Clinical Trials Group definitions) are reported on the web site. The Unexpected Events Project identifies unexpected adverse reactions during treatment and reports them. This paper presents the preliminary findings for the New Drugs Project. Between October 1, 2002, and March 30, 2004, 1184 patients were enrolled. The lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) cohort comprises 703 patients, the TDF cohort 585, IFN 35, ATZ 95, T-20 10, and TPV 8. So far 100 grades III and IV adverse events have been reported, 73 in the LPV/r group. In this cohort the rate of adverse events per 100 person-years was 14.2 on the basis of all patients treated, 9.8 for treatment-naive patients, and 15 for treatment-experienced patients. These findings, though preliminary, show that this data collection method gives timely real-life information from which to assess the impact of short- and long-term toxicity of new antiretroviral drugs.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 08/2005; 39(3):317-20. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-infected patients have a higher risk of developing cutaneous reactions than the general population, which has a significant impact on patients' current and future care options. The severity of cutaneous adverse reactions varies greatly, and some may be difficult to manage. HIV-infected patients just at the beginning of antiretroviral treatment can frequently show a wide variety of adverse drug effects such as drug rashes, hyperpigmentation, hair loss, hypersensitivity reactions, injection site reaction, urticarial reaction, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The early detection and treatment of cutaneous adverse drug reactions, plus identification of the causative agent, are essential to prevent the progression of the reaction, preventing additional exposures and ensuring the appropriate use of medications for the current condition and keeping in mind others, such as patient age. This article emphasizes the most common features of an antiretroviral drug-induced cutaneous reaction from protease inhibitors, non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, fusion inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, integrase inhibitors and inhibitors of the CCR5 chemokine receptor, paying special attention to the newest drugs approved for the treatment of HIV infection, such as tipranavir, darunavir, etravirine, enfuvirtide, raltegravir and maraviroc.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 11/2008; 62(5):879-88. · 5.34 Impact Factor

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