Anterior cingulate activation relates to local cortical thickness

Jane and Terry Semel Institute of Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, USA.
Neuroreport (Impact Factor: 1.52). 03/2012; 23(7):420-4. DOI: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e3283525a95
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Few studies have examined the relationship between local anatomic thickness of the cortex and the activation signals arising from it. Using structural and functional MRI, we examined whether a relationship exists between cortical thickness and brain activation. Twenty-eight participants were asked to perform the Go/NoGo response inhibition task known to activate the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal cortex. Structural data of the same regions were simultaneously collected. We hypothesized that cortical thickness in these brain regions would positively correlate with brain activation. Data from the structural MRI were aligned with those of functional MRI activation. There was a positive linear correlation between cortical thickness and activation during response inhibition in the right anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's Area 24). No significant thickness-activation correlations were found in the prefrontal cortex. Correlations between cortical thickness and activation may occur only in certain brain regions.

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Available from: Paul Thompson, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "Ilg and colleagues (2008) for instance showed that healthy individuals, trained to practice on a mirror reading task 15 min a day for 2 weeks had a significant GMV increase in the right dorsolateral occipital cortex, accompanied by modifications of the functional activity within the same region but also extending to the superior parietal areas (see also Haier et al. 2009; Hegarty et al. 2012; Schmidt- Wilcke et al. 2010 for corresponding findings). The relationship between training-induced change in hemodynamic responses and grey and WM structures remains, however, largely unexplored. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ample evidence indicates that inhibitory control (IC), a key executive component referring to the ability to suppress cognitive or motor processes, relies on a right-lateralized fronto-basal brain network. However, whether and how IC can be improved with training and the underlying neuroplastic mechanisms remains largely unresolved. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging to measure the effects of 2 weeks of training with a Go/NoGo task specifically designed to improve frontal top-down IC mechanisms. The training-induced behavioral improvements were accompanied by a decrease in neural activity to inhibition trials within the right pars opercularis and triangularis, and in the left pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyri. Analyses of changes in brain anatomy induced by the IC training revealed increases in grey matter volume in the right pars orbitalis and modulations of white matter microstructure in the right pars triangularis. The task-specificity of the effects of training was confirmed by an absence of change in neural activity to a control working memory task. Our combined anatomical and functional findings indicate that differential patterns of functional and structural plasticity between and within inferior frontal gyri enhanced the speed of top-down inhibition processes and in turn IC proficiency. The results suggest that training-based interventions might help overcoming the anatomic and functional deficits of inferior frontal gyri manifesting in inhibition-related clinical conditions. More generally, we demonstrate how multimodal neuroimaging investigations of training-induced neuroplasticity enable revealing novel anatomo-functional dissociations within frontal executive brain networks. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    • "Consistent with this prediction, most studies in which relationships between cortical structure and function have been tested suggest a negative correlation between CT and activation in typically developing children and adults, that is, thinner cortex is activated more strongly (Rasser et al. 2005; Lu et al. 2009; Nunez et al. 2011). To our knowledge, only one study has shown a positive correlation between CT and functional activation in a limbic structure, the anterior cingulate cortex (Hegarty et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Early blindness results in both structural and functional changes of the brain. However, these changes have rarely been studied in relation to each other. We measured alterations in cortical thickness (CT) caused by early visual deprivation and their relationship with cortical activity. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 12 early blind (EB) humans and 12 sighted controls (SC). Experimental conditions included one-back tasks for auditory localization and pitch identification, and a simple sound-detection task. Structural and functional data were analyzed in a whole-brain approach and within anatomically defined regions of interest in sensory areas of the spared (auditory) and deprived (visual) modalities. Functional activation during sound-localization or pitch-identification tasks correlated negatively with CT in occipital areas of EB (calcarine sulcus, lingual gyrus, superior and middle occipital gyri, and cuneus) and in nonprimary auditory areas of SC. These results suggest a link between CT and activation and demonstrate that the relationship between cortical structure and function may depend on early sensory experience, probably via selective pruning of exuberant connections. Activity-dependent effects of early sensory deprivation and long-term practice are superimposed on normal maturation and aging. Together these processes shape the relationship between brain structure and function over the lifespan.
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