Genome-wide analysis of plant nat-siRNAs reveals insights into their distribution, biogenesis and function. Genome Biol 13(3):R20

Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Center for Plant Cell Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
Genome biology (Impact Factor: 10.81). 03/2012; 13(3):R20. DOI: 10.1186/gb-2012-13-3-r20
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Many eukaryotic genomes encode cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs). Sense and antisense transcripts may form double-stranded RNAs that are processed by the RNA interference machinery into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). A few so-called nat-siRNAs have been reported in plants, mammals, Drosophila, and yeasts. However, many questions remain regarding the features and biogenesis of nat-siRNAs.
Through deep sequencing, we identified more than 17,000 unique siRNAs corresponding to cis-NATs from biotic and abiotic stress-challenged Arabidopsis thaliana and 56,000 from abiotic stress-treated rice. These siRNAs were enriched in the overlapping regions of NATs and exhibited either site-specific or distributed patterns, often with strand bias. Out of 1,439 and 767 cis-NAT pairs identified in Arabidopsis and rice, respectively, 84 and 119 could generate at least 10 siRNAs per million reads from the overlapping regions. Among them, 16 cis-NAT pairs from Arabidopsis and 34 from rice gave rise to nat-siRNAs exclusively in the overlap regions. Genetic analysis showed that the overlapping double-stranded RNAs could be processed by Dicer-like 1 (DCL1) and/or DCL3. The DCL3-dependent nat-siRNAs were also dependent on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) and plant-specific RNA polymerase IV (PolIV), whereas only a fraction of DCL1-dependent nat-siRNAs was RDR- and PolIV-dependent. Furthermore, the levels of some nat-siRNAs were regulated by specific biotic or abiotic stress conditions in Arabidopsis and rice.
Our results suggest that nat-siRNAs display distinct distribution patterns and are generated by DCL1 and/or DCL3. Our analysis further supported the existence of nat-siRNAs in plants and advanced our understanding of their characteristics.

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Available from: Renyi Liu, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "Among the 135 cis-NATs in Cassava, 48 (36%), 15 (11%) and 72 (53%) pairs were arranged in the convergent (3′-3′ overlap), divergent (5′-5′ overlap) and enclosed orientations, respectively (Additional file 2: Tables S9). Note that the percentage of enclosed cis-NATs was greater than that in Arabidopsis [25, 26]. In castor bean, the same number of 23 cis-NAT pairs appeared in the enclosed and divergent categories and 17 were convergent (Additional file 2: Table S10). "
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    ABSTRACT: Small noncoding RNA (sncRNA), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small-interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) are key gene regulators in eukaryotes, playing critical roles in plant development and stress tolerance. Trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs), which are secondary siRNAs triggered by miRNAs, and siRNAs from natural antisense transcripts (nat-siRNAs) are two well-studied classes of endo-siRNAs. In order to understand sncRNAs’ roles in plant chilling response and stress acclimation, we performed a comprehensive study of miRNAs and endo-siRNAs in Cassava (Manihot esculenta), a major source of food for the world populations in tropical regions. Combining Next-Generation sequencing and computational and experimental analyses, we profiled and characterized sncRNA species and mRNA genes from the plants that experienced severe and moderate chilling stresses, that underwent further severe chilling stress after chilling acclimation at moderate stress, and that grew under the normal condition. We also included castor bean (Ricinus communis) in our study to understand conservation of sncRNAs. In addition to known miRNAs, we identified 32 (22 and 10) novel miRNAs as well as 47 (26 and 21) putative secondary siRNA-yielding and 8 (7 and 1) nat-siRNA-yielding candidate loci in Cassava and castor bean, respectively. Among the expressed sncRNAs, 114 miRNAs, 12 ta-siRNAs and 2 nat-siRNAs showed significant expression changes under chilling stresses. Systematic and computational analysis of microRNAome and experimental validation collectively showed that miRNAs, ta-siRNAs, and possibly nat-siRNAs play important roles in chilling response and chilling acclimation in Cassava by regulating stress-related pathways, e.g. Auxin signal transduction. The conservation of these sncRNA might shed lights on the role of sncRNA-mediated pathways affected by chilling stress and stress acclimation in Euphorbiaceous plants.
    BMC Genomics 07/2014; 15(1):634. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-15-634 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    • "Another class of siRNAs is nat-siRNAs, which could be derived from RNAs transcribed from opposite strands of the same loci (cis-nat-siRNAs) [12] or by transcripts from different loci (trans-nat-siRNAs). There are 1,739 and 4,828 potential cis- and trans- natural antisense transcripts (NATs), respectively in Arabidopsis[13]. The production of nat-siRNAs are is dependent on RDR6 and DCL2 (24-nt) or DCL1 (21-nt). "
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    ABSTRACT: In higher eukaryotes, small RNAs play a role in regulating gene expression. Overexpression (OE) lines of Arabidopsis thaliana purple acid phosphatase 2 (AtPAP2) were shown to grow faster and exhibit higher ATP and sugar contents. Leaf microarray studies showed that many genes involved in microRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) biogenesis were significantly changed in the fast-growing lines. In this study, the sRNA profiles of the leaf and the root of 20-day-old plants were sequenced and the impacts of high energy status on sRNA expression were analyzed. 9-13 million reads from each library were mapped to genome. miRNAs, tasiRNAs and natural antisense transcripts-generated small interfering RNAs (natsiRNAs) were identified and compared between libraries. In the leaf of OE lines, 15 known miRNAs increased in abundance and 9 miRNAs decreased in abundance, whereas in the root of OE lines, 2 known miRNAs increased in abundance and 9 miRNAs decreased in abundance. miRNAs with increased abundance in the leaf and root samples of both OE lines (miR158b and miR172a/b) were predicted to target mRNAs coding for Dof zinc finger protein and Apetala 2 (AP2) proteins, respectively. Furthermore, a significant change in the miR173-tasiRNAs-PPR/TPR network was observed in the leaves of both OE lines. In this study, the impact of high energy content on the sRNA profiles of Arabidopsis is reported. While the abundance of many stress-induced miRNAs is unaltered, the abundance of some miRNAs related to plant growth and development (miR172 and miR319) is elevated in the fast-growing lines. An induction of miR173-tasiRNAs-PPR/TPR network was also observed in the OE lines. In contrast, only few cis- and trans-natsiRNAs are altered in the fast-growing lines.
    BMC Genomics 02/2014; 15(1):116. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-15-116 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    • "Cis-NATs have been identified on genome-wide scale in Arabidopsis and rice [6,14,15]. These cis-NATs produce nat-siRNAs in the regions overlapping with sense transcripts and the nat-siRNAs exhibit strand-specificity (strand bias) [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Brassica rapa includes several important leaf vegetable crops whose production is often damaged by high temperature. Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) and cis-NATs-derived small interfering RNAs (nat-siRNAs) play important roles in plant development and stress responses. However, genome-wide cis-NATs in B. rapa are not known. The NATs and nat-siRNAs that respond to heat stress have never been well studied in B. rapa. Here, we took advantage of RNA-seq and small RNA (sRNA) deep sequencing technology to identify cis-NATs and heat responsive nat-siRNAs in B. rapa. Analyses of four RNA sequencing datasets revealed 1031 cis-NATs B. rapa ssp. chinensis cv Wut and B. rapa ssp. pekinensis cv. Bre. Based on sequence homology between Arabidopsis thaliana and B. rapa, 303 conserved cis-NATs in B. rapa were found to correspond to 280 cis-NATs in Arabidopsis; the remaining 728 novel cis-NATs were identified as Brassica-specific ones. Using six sRNA libraries, 4846 nat-siRNAs derived from 150 cis-NATs were detected. Differential expression analysis revealed that nat-siRNAs derived from 12 cis-NATs were responsive to heat stress, and most of them showed strand bias. Real-time PCR indicated that most of the transcripts generating heat-responsive nat-siRNAs were upregulated under heat stress, while the transcripts from the opposite strands of the same loci were downregulated. Our results provide the first subsets of genome-wide cis-NATs and heat-responsive nat-siRNAs in B. rapa; these sRNAs are potentially useful for the genetic improvement of heat tolerance in B. rapa and other crops.
    BMC Plant Biology 12/2013; 13(1):208. DOI:10.1186/1471-2229-13-208 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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