Angiogenic potential of gellan-gum-based hydrogels for application in nucleus pulposus regeneration: in vivo study.
ABSTRACT Hydrogels for nucleus pulposus (NP) regeneration should be able to comprise a nonangiogenic or even antiangiogenic feature. Gellan gum (GG)-based hydrogels have been reported to possess adequate properties for being used as NP substitutes in acellular and cellular strategies, due to its ability to support cell encapsulation, adequate mechanical properties, and noncytotoxicity. In this study, the angiogenic response of GG-based hydrogels was investigated by performing the chorioallantoic membrane assay. The convergence of macroscopic blood vessels toward the GG, ionic-crosslinked methacrylated GG (iGG-MA), and photo-crosslinked methacrylated GG (phGG-MA) hydrogel discs was quantified. Gelatin sponge (GSp) and filter paper (FP) alone and with vascular endothelial growth factor were used as controls of angiogenesis. The images obtained were digitally processed and analyzed by three independent observers. The macroscopic blood vessel quantification demonstrated that the GG-based hydrogels are not angiogenic as compared with FP controls. No statistical differences between the GG-based hydrogels tested in respect to its angiogenic ability were observed. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and SNA-lectin immunohistochemistry assay indicated that the iGG-MA and phGG-MA hydrogels do not allow the ingrowth of chick endothelial cells, following 4 days of implantation. On the contrary, GG, GSp, and FP controls allowed cell infiltration. The histological data also indicated that the GG-based hydrogels do not elicit any acute inflammatory response. The results showed that the GG, iGG-MA, and phGG-MA hydrogels present different permeability to cells but functioned as a physical barrier for vascular invasion. These hydrogels present promising and tunable properties for being used as NP substitutes in the treatment of degenerative intervertebral disc.
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ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) has caused a revolution in present and future trends of medicine and surgery. In different tissues, advanced TERM approaches bring new therapeutic possibilities in general population as well as in young patients and high-level athletes, improving restoration of biological functions and rehabilitation. The mainstream components required to obtain a functional regeneration of tissues may include biodegradable scaffolds, drugs or growth factors and different cell types (either autologous or heterologous) that can be cultured in bioreactor systems (in vitro) prior to implantation into the patient. Particularly in the ankle, which is subject to many different injuries (e.g. acute, chronic, traumatic and degenerative), there is still no definitive and feasible answer to 'conventional' methods. This review aims to provide current concepts of TERM applications to ankle injuries under preclinical and/or clinical research applied to skin, tendon, bone and cartilage problems. A particular attention has been given to biomaterial design and scaffold processing with potential use in osteochondral ankle lesions.Journal of The Royal Society Interface 01/2014; 11(92):20130784. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over the past few decades, microbial polysaccharides have been under intense investigation due to their advantageous physicochemical properties. A great structural diversity of these biomolecules has led to multiple applications in food industry, personal care products, pharmacy and medicine. Currently, one of the most widely studied and fully described member of this group is gellan. It is a linear polymer produced by Sphingomonas elodea. A polymer chain of gellan consists of a tetrasaccharide repeating unit of l-rhamnose, d-glucose and d-glucuronate. So far most of the studies have been focused on the application of gellan as a food ingredient. However, due to the unique structure and beneficial properties, gellan is currently described as a potent multifunctional additive for various pharmaceutical products. Specific gelling properties in different media led to the development of controlled release forms based on gellan. Various formulations have been studied including oral, ophthalmic, nasal and other. Recent reports suggest that gellan-based materials can also be used in regenerative medicine, stomatology or gene transfer technology.International Journal of Pharmaceutics 03/2014; · 3.99 Impact Factor
Chapter: Gellan01/2014; , ISBN: ISBN-10: 1439898790