Blimp1 Activation by AP-1 in Human Lung Cancer Cells Promotes a Migratory Phenotype and Is Inhibited by the Lysyl Oxidase Propeptide

Department of Biochemistry, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 03/2012; 7(3):e33287. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033287
Source: PubMed


B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) is a master regulator of B cell differentiation, and controls migration of primordial germ cells. Recently we observed aberrant Blimp1 expression in breast cancer cells resulting from an NF-κB RelB to Ras signaling pathway. In order to address the question of whether the unexpected expression of Blimp1 is seen in other epithelial-derived tumors, we selected lung cancers as they are frequently driven by Ras signaling. Blimp1 was detected in all five lung cancer cell lines examined and shown to promote lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Interrogation of microarray datasets demonstrated elevated BLIMP1 RNA expression in lung adenocarcinoma, pancreatic ductal carcinomas, head and neck tumors as well as in glioblastomas. Involvement of Ras and its downstream kinase c-Raf was confirmed using mutant and siRNA strategies. We next addressed the issue of mechanism of Blimp1 activation in lung cancer. Using knockdown and ectopic expression, the role of the Activator Protein (AP)-1 family of transcription factors was demonstrated. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed binding to identified AP-1 elements in the BLIMP1 promoter of ectopically expressed c-Jun and of endogenous AP-1 subunits following serum stimulation. The propeptide domain of lysyl oxidase (LOX-PP) was identified as a tumor suppressor, with ability to reduce Ras signaling in lung cancer cells. LOX-PP reduced expression of Blimp1 by binding to c-Raf and inhibiting activation of AP-1, thereby attenuating the migratory phenotype of lung cancer cells. Thus, Blimp1 is a mediator of Ras/Raf/AP-1 signaling that promotes cell migration, and is repressed by LOX-PP in lung cancer.

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    • "Human breast, prostate and oral cancer cell lines and phenotypically normal osteoblasts are among the cell lines in which rLOX-PP has been shown to be biologically active (Bais et al., 2015b; Palamakumbura et al., 2009; Sanchez-Morgan et al., 2011; Sato et al., 2013; Vora et al., 2010b; Yu et al., 2012; Zhao et al., 2009). We, therefore evaluated uptake of rLOX-PP into cells representing this variety of cells. "
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