Effect of elevated CO2 and high temperature on seed-set and grain quality of rice

Division of Plant Physiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India.
Journal of Experimental Botany (Impact Factor: 5.79). 03/2012; 63(10):3843-52. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/ers077
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hybrid vigour may help overcome the negative effects of climate change in rice. A popular rice hybrid (IR75217H), a heat-tolerant check (N22), and a mega-variety (IR64) were tested for tolerance of seed-set and grain quality to high-temperature stress at anthesis at ambient and elevated [CO(2)]. Under an ambient air temperature of 29 °C (tissue temperature 28.3 °C), elevated [CO(2)] increased vegetative and reproductive growth, including seed yield in all three genotypes. Seed-set was reduced by high temperature in all three genotypes, with the hybrid and IR64 equally affected and twice as sensitive as the tolerant cultivar N22. No interaction occurred between temperature and [CO(2)] for seed-set. The hybrid had significantly more anthesed spikelets at all temperatures than IR64 and at 29 °C this resulted in a large yield advantage. At 35 °C (tissue temperature 32.9 °C) the hybrid had a higher seed yield than IR64 due to the higher spikelet number, but at 38 °C (tissue temperature 34-35 °C) there was no yield advantage. Grain gel consistency in the hybrid and IR64 was reduced by high temperatures only at elevated [CO(2)], while the percentage of broken grains increased from 10% at 29 °C to 35% at 38 °C in the hybrid. It is concluded that seed-set of hybrids is susceptible to short episodes of high temperature during anthesis, but that at intermediate tissue temperatures of 32.9 °C higher spikelet number (yield potential) of the hybrid can compensate to some extent. If the heat tolerance from N22 or other tolerant donors could be transferred into hybrids, yield could be maintained under the higher temperatures predicted with climate change.

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Available from: Krishna SV Jagadish, Jul 25, 2015
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    • "To date, a number of studies have shown that elevated [CO 2 ] differentially affects the growth and yield response of rice cultivars (Seneweera et al., 2001; Zhu et al., 2012). This variation is evident in a number of physiological responses; from the cellular to the whole plant level including changes in grain quality (Madan et al., 2012; Myers et al., 2014; Seneweera and Conroy, 1997; Shimono et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although a number of studies have shown that rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], can differentially affect the growth and yield potential of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, there has been no attempt to determine if the response is associated with changes in seed vigor, an essential aspect of crop establishment. Because previous investigations have shown that [CO2] can change the grain structure and quality of rice seed, we hypothesized that [CO2] would decrease vigor via decreased germination rates. To test this hypothesis, we used an in situ, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) system to assess seed quality in six rice cultivars that differed in their growth and reproductive response to rising [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] had no effect on seed hull thickness or seed specific gravity, but did significantly reduce total nitrogen and protein concentration for all cultivars. Despite the changes in grain physical and chemical traits associated with germination, no clear indication of quantitative effects of elevated [CO2] on rice germination was found.
    Field Crops Research 07/2015; 178. DOI:10.1016/j.fcr.2015.03.023 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    • "Molecular and genomic responses of plants to high [CO2] and interactive effects of [CO2] with other environmental stresses viz. Ozone (Miyazaki et al., 2004; Kontunen-Soppela et al., 2010; Gillespie et al., 2012), salinity (Kanani et al., 2010), drought (Allen et al., 2011; Sicher et al., 2012), high temperature (Madan et al., 2012) and combined heat and drought (Zinta et al., 2014) have been carried out, whereas studies elucidating the interactive effects of P stress and high [CO2] on gene expression patterns are not available. A sole study on P-deficient Arabidopsis grown under high [CO2] and fed on nitrate-N showed increased root surface area and root-to-shoot ratio. "
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    ABSTRACT: Atmospheric [CO2] has increased substantially in recent decades and will continue to do so, whereas the availability of phosphorus (P) is limited and unlikely to increase in the future. P is a non-renewable resource, and it is essential to every form of life. P is a key plant nutrient controlling the responsiveness of photosynthesis to [CO2]. Increases in [CO2] typically results in increased biomass through stimulation of net photosynthesis, and hence enhance the demand for P uptake. However, most soils contain low concentrations of available P. Therefore, low P is one of the major growth-limiting factors for plants in many agricultural and natural ecosystems. The adaptive responses of plants to [CO2] and P availability encompass alterations at morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. In general low P reduces growth, whereas high [CO2] enhances it particularly in C3 plants. Photosynthetic capacity is often enhanced under high [CO2] with sufficient P supply through modulation of enzyme activities involved in carbon fixation such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). However, high [CO2] with low P availability results in enhanced dry matter partitioning toward roots. Alterations in below-ground processes including root morphology, exudation and mycorrhizal association are influenced by [CO2] and P availability. Under high P availability, elevated [CO2] improves the uptake of P from soil. In contrast, under low P availability, high [CO2] mainly improves the efficiency with which plants produce biomass per unit P. At molecular level, the spatio-temporal regulation of genes involved in plant adaptation to low P and high [CO2] has been studied individually in various plant species. Genome-wide expression profiling of high [CO2] grown plants revealed hormonal regulation of biomass accumulation through complex transcriptional networks. Similarly, differential transcriptional regulatory networks are involved in P-limitation responses in plants. Analysis of expression patterns of some typical P-limitation induced genes under high [CO2] suggests that long-term exposure of plants to high [CO2] would have a tendency to stimulate similar transcriptional responses as observed under P-limitation. However, studies on the combined effect of high [CO2] and low P on gene expression are scarce. Such studies would provide insights into the development of P efficient crops in the context of anticipated increases in atmospheric [CO2]. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Biotechnology Advances 03/2015; 33(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.03.011 · 8.91 Impact Factor
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    • "improves the productivity of C3 plants, including rice (Ainsworth, 2008; Madan et al., 2012; Figueiredo et al., 2013a, 2014; Pereira et al., 2013). Increase in plant growth leads to increased N uptake by plants, thereby promoting a large reduction in available NH 4 + . "
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    ABSTRACT: Data on the movements of available N and non-exchangeable NH4+ in the soil are of crucial importance in designing an efficient plant N nutrition management scheme in paddy rice fields. To investigate the processes affecting the dynamics of N and pH under Mediterranean conditions, rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Ariete) was cultivated in 2011 and 2012 in Salvaterra de Magos (central Portugal) under the following climate scenarios: (i) ambient temperature and ambient [CO2] in the open-field, (ii) elevated temperature (+3 °C) and ambient [CO2] in open-top chambers, and (iii) elevated temperature (+3 °C) and elevated [CO2] (+175 μmol mol−1) in open-top chambers. Plants were grown under an intermittent flooding regime. Soil and water samples were taken at eight different stages of plant growth, including before and after N basal and topdressing. Our study indicated that the processes underlying N changes in response to the timing of N fertilization were different depending on the N form. After basal dressing under aerobic conditions, both available and non-exchangeable NH4+ contents were increased. Following the topdressing under flooded conditions, the available content of soil N increased, whereas the non-exchangeable NH4+ content decreased. A negative relationship was found between soil pH and NH4+ “fixation” when roots were active, and vice-versa. Elevated temperature alone or in combination with elevated [CO2] had no effect on the total available N content in the soil and floodwater. Under elevated temperature, however, the non-exchangeable NH4+ content was significantly reduced (11%), with the same magnitude of change (10%) observed under co-elevation of temperature and [CO2]. These results suggested that non-exchangeable NH4+ in paddy fields might be insensitive to [CO2] elevation under Mediterranean conditions, while reductions observed under co-elevation of [CO2] and temperature might be associated with temperature alone. This information could be used to alter rice management practices and to adjust N application under climate change.
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