Serum β-carotene in relation to risk of prostate cancer: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study.
ABSTRACT Results from epidemiologic studies on the association between circulating carotenoid concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer are still inconsistent. We studied whether serum concentrations of carotenoids were associated with the risk of developing prostate cancer. The study population consisted of 997 middle-aged Finnish men (56.1 ± 6.6 yr) in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) cohort. Serum concentrations of carotenoids were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Subjects were classified into tertiles according to their serum concentrations of antioxidants. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated by using the Cox proportional hazard models. During the mean follow-up time of 15 yr, a total of 68 prostate cancer cases occurred. After adjusting for age, examination yr, family history of cancer, BMI, pack-yr of smoking, alcohol consumption, education, physical activity, serum total cholesterol, and serum α-linolenic acid, men in the highest tertile of serum concentrations of β-carotene had 2.3-fold higher risk of prostate cancer as compared to those in the lowest tertile (RR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.12-4.66; P = 0.023). α-Tocopherol and retinol were not associated with prostate cancer. This prospective study suggests that high-serum β-carotene concentrations may increase the risk of prostate cancer in middle-aged men.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a leading cause of mortality in US men and the prevalence continues to rise world-wide especially in countries where men consume a ‘Western-style’ diet. Epidemiologic, preclinical and clinical studies suggest a potential role for dietary intake on the incidence and progression of PCa. 'This minireview provides an overview of recent published literature with regard to nutrients, dietary factors, dietary patterns and PCa incidence and progression. Low carbohydrates intake, soy protein, omega-3 (w-3) fat, green teas, tomatoes and tomato products and zyflamend showed promise in reducing PCa risk or progression. A higher saturated fat intake and a higher β-carotene status may increase risk. A ‘U’ shape relationship may exist between folate, vitamin C, vitamin D and calcium with PCa risk. Despite the inconsistent and inconclusive findings, the potential for a role of dietary intake for the prevention and treatment of PCa is promising. The combination of all the beneficial factors for PCa risk reduction in a healthy dietary pattern may be the best dietary advice. This pattern includes rich fruits and vegetables, reduced refined carbohydrates, total and saturated fats, and reduced cooked meats. Further carefully designed prospective trials are warranted.BMC Medicine 12/2015; 13(1). DOI:10.1186/s12916-014-0234-y · 7.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: An association between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality was suggested in an earlier meta-analysis of 24 prospective studies in which dose-response associations and risks per unit of tobacco use were not examined. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between several measures of tobacco use and PCa mortality (primary outcome) and incidence (secondary outcome) including dose-response association. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Relevant articles from prospective studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases (through January 21, 2014) and reference lists of relevant articles. Combined relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects methods. We also calculated population attributable risk (PAR) for smoking and PCa mortality. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We included 51 articles in this meta-analysis (11823 PCa deaths, 50349 incident cases, and 4082606 cohort participants). Current cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of PCa death (RR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.31), with little evidence for heterogeneity and publication bias. The number of cigarettes smoked per day had a dose-response association with PCa mortality (p=0.02; RR for 20 cigarettes per day: 1.20). The PAR for cigarette smoking and PCa deaths in the United States and Europe were 6.7% and 9.5%, respectively, corresponding to >10000 deaths/year in these two regions. Current cigarette smoking was inversely associated with incident PCa (RR: 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96), with high heterogeneity in the results. However, in studies completed in 1995 or earlier (considered as completed before the prostate-specific antigen screening era), ever smoking showed a positive association with incident PCa (RR: 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00-1.12) with little heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Combined evidence from observational studies shows a modest but statistically significant association between cigarette smoking and fatal PCa. Smoking appears to be a modifiable risk factor for PCa death. PATIENT SUMMARY: Smoking increases the chance of prostate cancer death. Not smoking prevents this harm and many other tobacco-related diseases.European Urology 12/2014; 66(6). DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.08.059 · 12.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Experimental studies suggest that carotenoids and retinol may play a role in carcinogenesis, but epidemiological evidence is lacking. We investigated the prospective associations between plasma concentrations of major carotenoids and retinol, and overall and breast cancer risk. A nested case-control study included all first incident cancer cases diagnosed in the SU.VI.MAX cohort between 1994 and 2002 (n = 159 cases, 1 matched control/case). Baseline plasma concentrations of carotenoids and retinol were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess odds ratios for an increase of 0.1 μmol/L [odds ratio (OR)] and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Plasma β-carotene (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.90-0.99, Ptrend = 0.04) and β-cryptoxanthin concentrations (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.81-0.99, Ptrend = 0.03) were inversely associated with overall cancer risk. Plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentration was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71-0.96, Ptrend = 0.02). The OR between plasma lycopene concentration and overall cancer risk was 1.07 (0.99-1.15), Ptrend = 0.06. This association turned significant (Ptrend = 0.01) when excluding cancer cases diagnosed during the first year of follow-up. This prospective study suggests an inverse association between plasma concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin and both overall and breast cancer risk, and an inverse association between β-carotene and overall cancer risk. The direct association between lycopene concentration and cancer risk deserves further investigation.Nutrition and Cancer 07/2014; DOI:10.1080/01635581.2014.936952 · 2.47 Impact Factor