Serum β-carotene in relation to risk of prostate cancer: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study.
ABSTRACT Results from epidemiologic studies on the association between circulating carotenoid concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer are still inconsistent. We studied whether serum concentrations of carotenoids were associated with the risk of developing prostate cancer. The study population consisted of 997 middle-aged Finnish men (56.1 ± 6.6 yr) in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) cohort. Serum concentrations of carotenoids were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Subjects were classified into tertiles according to their serum concentrations of antioxidants. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated by using the Cox proportional hazard models. During the mean follow-up time of 15 yr, a total of 68 prostate cancer cases occurred. After adjusting for age, examination yr, family history of cancer, BMI, pack-yr of smoking, alcohol consumption, education, physical activity, serum total cholesterol, and serum α-linolenic acid, men in the highest tertile of serum concentrations of β-carotene had 2.3-fold higher risk of prostate cancer as compared to those in the lowest tertile (RR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.12-4.66; P = 0.023). α-Tocopherol and retinol were not associated with prostate cancer. This prospective study suggests that high-serum β-carotene concentrations may increase the risk of prostate cancer in middle-aged men.
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ABSTRACT: Observational studies suggest an inverse association between vitamin E and risk of prostate cancer, particularly aggressive tumors. However, three large randomized controlled trials have reported conflicting results. Thus, we examined circulating vitamin E and vitamin E-related genes in relation to risk of high-grade prostate cancer and prostate cancer recurrence among men initially diagnosed with clinically organ-confined disease. We measured circulating α- and γ-tocopherol and genotyped 30 SNPs in SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, TTPA, and SEC14L2 among 573 men with organ-confined prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy. We examined associations between circulating vitamin E, genotypes, and risk of high-grade prostate cancer (Gleason grade ≥ 8 or 7 with primary score ≥ 4; n = 117) using logistic regression, and risk of recurrence (56 events; 3.7 years median follow-up) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Circulating γ-tocopherol was associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (Q4 v. Q1 odds ratio [OR] = 1.87; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.97-3.58; Ptrend = 0.02). The less common allele in SOD3 rs699473 was associated with an increased risk of high-grade disease (T > C: OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.04-1.89). Two independent SNPs in SOD1 were inversely associated with prostate cancer recurrence in additive models (rs17884057 hazard ratio [HR] = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.25-0.96; rs9967983 HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.40-0.95). Among men with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer, genetic variation in SOD may be associated with risk of high-grade disease at diagnosis and disease recurrence. Circulating γ-tocopherol levels may also be associated with an increased risk of high-grade disease at diagnosis. Prostate © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.The Prostate 08/2013; · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Experimental studies suggest that carotenoids and retinol may play a role in carcinogenesis, but epidemiological evidence is lacking. We investigated the prospective associations between plasma concentrations of major carotenoids and retinol, and overall and breast cancer risk. A nested case-control study included all first incident cancer cases diagnosed in the SU.VI.MAX cohort between 1994 and 2002 (n = 159 cases, 1 matched control/case). Baseline plasma concentrations of carotenoids and retinol were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess odds ratios for an increase of 0.1 μmol/L [odds ratio (OR)] and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Plasma β-carotene (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.90-0.99, Ptrend = 0.04) and β-cryptoxanthin concentrations (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.81-0.99, Ptrend = 0.03) were inversely associated with overall cancer risk. Plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentration was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71-0.96, Ptrend = 0.02). The OR between plasma lycopene concentration and overall cancer risk was 1.07 (0.99-1.15), Ptrend = 0.06. This association turned significant (Ptrend = 0.01) when excluding cancer cases diagnosed during the first year of follow-up. This prospective study suggests an inverse association between plasma concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin and both overall and breast cancer risk, and an inverse association between β-carotene and overall cancer risk. The direct association between lycopene concentration and cancer risk deserves further investigation.Nutrition and Cancer 07/2014; · 2.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using archival data, we conducted a secondary analysis to examine race differences in the relation of serum vitamins A, C, E and β-carotene to insulin resistance (IR), fasting insulin and glucose, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and leukocyte count in 176 non-smoking, healthy, white, and African American (AA) adults aged 18 to 65 years (48% women, 33% AA). We hypothesized that micronutrient concentrations would be associated with early risk markers of cardiometabolic diseases in a race-dependent manner. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for micronutrients, insulin, glucose, hs-CRP, and leukocyte count. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment. After adjusting for age, body mass index, gender, educational level, use of vitamin supplements, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, menopausal status, and total cholesterol, we observed that β-carotene was significantly associated with insulin resistance and fasting insulin in a race-dependent manner. Among AA, lower β-carotene levels were associated with higher estimates of insulin resistance and fasting insulin; whereas, these same associations were not significant for whites. Race also significantly moderated the relation of vitamin C to leukocyte count, with lower vitamin C being associated with higher leukocyte count only in AA but not whites. For all subjects, lower β-carotene was associated with higher hs-CRP. In AA, but not whites, lower levels of β-carotene and vitamin C were significantly associated with early risk markers implicated in cardiometabolic conditions and cancer. Whether or not lower levels of micronutrients contribute uniquely to racial health disparities is a worthwhile aim for future research.Nutrition research 01/2014; 34(1):1-10. · 2.59 Impact Factor