Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants during college: four-year trends in exposure opportunity, use, motives, and sources.
ABSTRACT Examine trends in nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS), including motives, routes of administration, sources, cost, and risk factors.
1,253 college students.
Data were collected annually during academic years 2004-2005 through 2008-2009. Generalized estimating equations analyses evaluated longitudinal trends. Logistic regression models evaluated stability of associations between risk factors and NPS over time.
Almost two-thirds (61.8%(wt)) were offered prescription stimulants for nonmedical use by Year 4, and 31.0%(wt) used. Studying was the predominant motive (73.8% to 91.5% annually), intranasal administration was modest (< 17% annually), and the most common source was a friend with a prescription (≥ 73.9% annually). Significant changes over time included decreasing curiosity motives, increasing overuse of one's own prescription, and increasing proportion paying $5+ per pill. Lower grade point average and alcohol/cannabis use disorders were consistently associated with NPS, holding constant other factors.
Prevention opportunities exist for parents, physicians, and college administrators to reduce NPS.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with the illicit use of prescription stimulants and to assess the relationship between the medical and illicit use of prescription stimulants among undergraduate college students. A Web survey was self-administered by a random sample of 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large public midwestern university in the spring of 2003. A total of 8.1% reported lifetime illicit use of prescription stimulants and 5.4% reported past year illicit use. The number of undergraduate students who reported illicit use of prescription stimulants exceeded the number of students who reported medical use of prescription stimulants for ADHD. The leading sources of prescription stimulants for illicit use were friends and peers. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed several risk factors for illicit use of prescription stimulants such as being male, White, member of a social fraternity or sorority, Jewish religious affiliation, and lower grade point average. All of these characteristics were also related to medically prescribed use of prescription stimulants. Those who initiated medically prescribed use of prescription stimulants for ADHD in elementary school were generally not at increased risk for illicit use of prescription stimulants or other drugs during college as compared to those who were never prescribed stimulant medication. The present study provides evidence that the illicit use of prescription stimulants is a problem among undergraduate college students, and certain subgroups appear to be at heightened risk.Journal of psychoactive drugs 04/2006; 38(1):43-56. · 1.10 Impact Factor
Article: Nonmedical prescription stimulant use among college students: why we need to do something and what we need to do.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article summarizes recent research findings on nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and outlines a multi-pronged strategic approach for responding to this unique problem among college students. Students, health professionals, parents, the pharmaceutical industry, and institutions of higher education all play roles in this response. Moreover, the academic community should view the translation of research findings as an important responsibility that can help dispel the myths often perpetuated in the media. The nonmedical use of prescription stimulants is a complex behavior and should be viewed in the larger context of alcohol and drug involvement among young adults. Strategies to reduce nonmedical use of prescription stimulants might have direct application to the abuse of other prescription drugs, including opiates.Journal of Addictive Diseases 10/2010; 29(4):417-26. · 1.46 Impact Factor