Triclosan: environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action
ABSTRACT Triclosan [5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol; TCS] is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent used in personal care, veterinary, industrial and household products. TCS is commonly detected in aquatic ecosystems, as it is only partially removed during the wastewater treatment process. Sorption, biodegradation and photolytic degradation mitigate the availability of TCS to aquatic biota; however the by-products such as methyltriclosan and other chlorinated phenols may be more resistant to degradation and have higher toxicity than the parent compound. The continuous exposure of aquatic organisms to TCS, coupled with its bioaccumulation potential, have led to detectable levels of the antimicrobial in a number of aquatic species. TCS has been also detected in breast milk, urine and plasma, with levels of TCS in the blood correlating with consumer use patterns of the antimicrobial. Mammalian systemic toxicity studies indicate that TCS is neither acutely toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, nor a developmental toxicant. Recently, however, concern has been raised over TCS's potential for endocrine disruption, as the antimicrobial has been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and possibly the reproductive axis. Moreover, there is strong evidence that aquatic species such as algae, invertebrates and certain types of fish are much more sensitive to TCS than mammals. TCS is highly toxic to algae and exerts reproductive and developmental effects in some fish. The potential for endocrine disruption and antibiotic cross-resistance highlights the importance of the judicious use of TCS, whereby the use of TCS should be limited to applications where it has been shown to be effective.
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ABSTRACT: Humans are extensively exposed to triclosan, an antibacterial and antifungal agent. Triclosan's effects on human health, however, have not been carefully investigated. To examine whether triclosan exposure is associated with obesity traits. This study included 2898 children (6-19 years old) and 5066 adults (20 years or older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2010 and had a detectable level of urinary triclosan. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the association between urinary triclosan and both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Each standard deviation increase in urinary triclosan was associated with a 0.34 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.05, 0.64)kg/m(2) lower level of BMI (P=0.02) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.09, 1.74)cm smaller waist circumference (P=0.03) in boys, and a 0.62 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.94)kg/m(2) lower level of BMI (P=0.0002) and 1.32 (95% CI: 0.54, 2.09)cm smaller waist circumference in girls (P=0.001); a 0.42 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.77)kg/m(2) lower level of BMI (P=0.02) and 1.35 (95% CI: 0.48, 2.22)cm smaller waist circumference (P=0.003) in men, and a 0.71 (95% CI: 0.34, 1.07)kg/m(2) lower level of BMI (P=0.0002) and 1.68 (95% CI: 0.86, 2.50)cm smaller waist circumference (P=0.0001) in women. In both children and adults, there was a consistent trend for lower levels of BMI and smaller waist circumference with increasing levels of urinary triclosan, from the lowest to the highest quartile of urinary triclosan (P≤0.001 in all cases). Triclosan exposure is inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference. The biological mechanisms linking triclosan exposure to obesity await further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.International journal of hygiene and environmental health 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.03.004 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gallnuts are known to exert various pharmaceutical effects, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and detoxifying effects. In particular, the gallnut extract is thought to be a safe antimicrobial agent for textile application, since it is of natural origin. Hence, wool and cotton fabrics were treated with the gallnut extract, by using a pad-dry-cure process to develop multi-functional clothing material with no harmful effects. Additionally, fabrics were plasma-treated to improve the finishing effect. This study thoroughly investigated the surface appearance, mechanical properties, antimicrobial ability, and antioxidant performance of gallnut extract-treated wool and cotton fabrics. Gallnut extract treatment was found to impose the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties on the wool and cotton fabrics.Dyes and Pigments 04/2014; 103:222-227. DOI:10.1016/j.dyepig.2013.09.015 · 3.47 Impact Factor
Environmental Engineering Science 01/2015; 32(3):150127063128008. DOI:10.1089/ees.2014.0082 · 0.93 Impact Factor