Effect of chronic stress on spatial memory in rats is attenuated by lithium treatment
ABSTRACT Stress is known to alter cognitive functions, such as memory, and it has been linked to the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Chronic lithium treatment is used in some psychiatric disorders and has been suggested to act upon mechanisms which can enhance neuronal viability. The purpose of this work is to investigate a possible effect of lithium treatment in a chronic stress model. Adult male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, control and chronically stressed, treated either with normal chow or with chow containing LiCl for 40 days. Stress treatment was a chronic variable stress model, consisting of different stressors which were applied in a random fashion, once a day, every day. Memory was assessed by using the water maze task. The results demonstrated a marked decrease in reference memory in the water maze task in chronically stressed rats. This effect was attenuated by lithium treatment in all the parameters considered. No effect was observed in the working memory. These results indicate that lithium treatment may counteract some effects of chronic stress situations, particularly concerning spatial memory.
Article: Oral administration of lithium increases tissue magnesium contents but not plasma magnesium level in rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to determine the influence of different doses of lithium on magnesium concentration in plasma and tissues of rats. For a period of eight weeks rats had been provided with aqueous solutions of Li(2)CO(3) whose concentrations were established as follows: 0.7; 1.4; 2.6; 3.6; 7.1; 10.7 mmol Li(+)/l. Magnesium concentration was determined in plasma and tissue supernatants. Lithium caused no changes in magnesium concentration in plasma, whereas Mg concentration in tissues was found to be enhanced, although the degree of the increment depended on the studied tissue. In the liver, brain and heart muscle, the increase was statistically insignificant vs. control. In the kidney, the higher Li doses were required to result in the significant Mg enhancement, whereas in femoral muscle all the used doses caused well-marked Mg increase vs. control. Positive correlations between average daily Li intake and tissue Mg concentration in the kidney (r = 0.650) and femoral muscle (r = 0.696) were found. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the different Li doses disturbed tissue homeostasis of magnesium. The increase in Mg tissue concentration, observed in groups receiving higher Li doses can influence nervous-muscular excitability.Pharmacological reports: PR 59(3):291-5. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stress impairs the induction of long-term potentiation in the hippocampus as well as hippocampus-dependent memory. Lithium, a classical mood stabilizer, is known to have beneficial effects on stress-induced impairment of spatial memory. In the present study, we investigated lithium effects on the impairment of long-term potentiation induction after exposure to acute immobilization stress. As previously reported, immobilization stress impaired long-term potentiation induction in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. Treating the slices with 0.6 or 1 mM lithium attenuated impaired long-term potentiation induction in stressed animals. Lithium was without effect on long-term potentiation induction in unstressed animals or baseline synaptic responses in unstressed or stressed animals. These results demonstrate a protective effect of lithium against stress-induced impairment of long-term potentiation induction.Neuroreport 10/2005; 16(14):1605-8. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exposure to chronic restraint stress in rats and psychosocial stress in humans has been shown to alter cognitive functions such as learning and memory and has been linked to the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Antianxiety or sedative agents used in the management of stress have several disadvantages and undesired effects. Therefore, in this study, we investigated efficacy of a natural medicine, the extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGB 761), in prevention and treatment of the post-stress memory dysfunctions. The results showed that chronic restraint stress (2 h for 21 days) or an 'equivalent' dose of exogenous corticosterone (5 mg/kg) impaired nonspatial memory as measured by an object recognition test. In control rats, EGB 761 improved spatial and nonspatial memory in Morris water maze and object recognition tests. Preventive doses of EGB 761 (100 mg/kg) normalized cognitive deficits, seen in rats chronically stressed or treated with corticosterone in object recognition test, and improved memory processes in these rats measured by Morris water maze test. There was no influence of our treatments on locomotor exploratory activity and anxiety measured in open field and elevated 'plus' maze tests, making a contribution of unspecific motor and emotional effects of the used drugs to their performance in the memory tests improbable.Pharmacological reports: PR 57(2):176-87. · 2.44 Impact Factor