Effects of surface topography and rain intensity on splash dispersal of * Colletotrichum acutatum *.

Phytopathology (Impact Factor: 2.75). 10/1990; 80(10):1115-1120. DOI: 10.1094/Phyto-80-1115


Available from: Laurence V Madden, Mar 21, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and botrytis bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea) are important diseases in the highlands of Santa Catarina State, a relatively new wine-growing region in Brazil. Although it is known that training systems can affect microclimate and subsequent disease development, this has not been examined in the highlands of Brazil. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of Y-trellis (YT) and vertical shoot positioning (VSP) training system on downy mildew and botrytis bunch rot disease development in ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ cultivar. Experiments were carried out in commercial vineyards in São Joaquim, SC Municipality, southern Brazil, during the year 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 growing seasons. Downy mildew incidence and severity were quantified weekly from the first symptoms appearance on leaves and botrytis bunch rot incidence was evaluated at harvest. Disease progress curves were constructed compared according to: (a) beginning of symptoms appearance; (b) time to maximum disease incidence and severity; (c) maximum disease incidence and severity; and (d) area under the incidence and severity disease progress curve. Results showed significant differences in downy mildew and botrytis bunch rot intensity among grape training systems, where VSP training system showed significantly lower area under the incidence and severity disease progress curve and intensity of downy mildew and botrytis bunch rot in both 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 growing seasons. Collectively, the results of this study suggest VSP training system should be recommended for grapevine production to reduce both downy mildew and botrytis bunch rot in the highlands regions of southern Brazil.
    Scientia Horticulturae 03/2015; 185. DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2015.01.023 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zhou, X. G., and Everts, K. L. 2012. Anthracnose and gummy stem blight are reduced on watermelon grown on a no-till hairy vetch cover crop. Plant Dis. 96:431-436. Multiple applications of fungicides are used to manage anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and gummy stem blight caused by Didymella bryoniae, the two most common and destructive diseases on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. To develop a sustainable, nonchemical management option, a split-plot experiment was conducted over 3 years to evaluate the effects of a no-till hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) cover crop on disease severity, plant growth, and fruit yield compared with two conventional bedding systems and fungicide application. The main plots were bedding strategies consisting of bare ground, polyethylene covering, or a hairy vetch cover crop that was planted in the fall, killed the following spring, and left on the soil surface as an organic mulch. The subplots were a nonfungicide control or a weekly application of a standard fungicide program. Hairy vetch mulch provided greater than a 65% reduction in the area under the disease progress curves of anthracnose and gummy stem blight and greater than an 88% decrease in diseased fruit compared with bare ground or polyethylene mulch. The reductions were comparable with those achieved by fungicide applications. Watermelon vine lengths in plots with hairy vetch were similar to or greater than those in plots with polyethylene or bare ground that were treated with fungicides. Marketable fruit in plots with hairy vetch was higher compared with bare ground in 2 of 3 years and was similar to that in plots treated with fungicides in all 3 years. Addition of fungicide application to hairy vetch treatment further reduced anthracnose in 1 year and gummy stem blight in 2 years but did not significantly increase fruit yield in all 3 years. This is the first demonstration that a no-till hairy vetch production system can reduce anthracnose and gummy stem blight on watermelon and that the production system has the potential to mitigate damage caused by these diseases.
    Plant Disease 03/2012; 96(3):431-436. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-11-0608 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Light conditions can influence fungal development. Some spectral wavebands can induce conidial production, while others can kill the conidia reducing the population size and limiting dispersal. The plant-pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose in several crops. During the asexual stage on the host plant, Colletototrichum produces acervuli with abundant mucilage-embedded conidia. These conidia are responsible for fungal dispersal and host infection. This study examined the effect of visible light during C. acutatum growth on the production of conidia and mucilage and also on the UV tolerance of these conidia. Conidial tolerance to an environmentally realistic UV irradiance was determined both in conidia surrounded by mucilage on sporulating colonies and in conidial suspension. Exposures to visible light during fungal growth increased production of conidia and mucilage as well as conidial tolerance to UV. Colonies exposed to light produced 1.7 times more conidia than colonies grown in continuous darkness. The UV tolerances of conidia produced under light were at least 2 times higher than conidia produced in the dark. Conidia embedded in the mucilage on sporulating colonies were more tolerant of UV than conidia in suspension that were washed free of mucilage. Conidial tolerance to UV radiation varied among 5 selected isolates. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Photochemistry and Photobiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1111/php.12410 · 2.68 Impact Factor