[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To reduce the use of pesticides, innovative studies have been developed to introduce the plant as the centre of the crop protection system. The aim of this paper is to explain how architectural traits of plants and canopies induce a more or less severe epidemic and how they may be modified in order to reduce disease development. In particular, it focuses on three key questions: i) which processes linked to epidemics can be influenced by architecture ii) how can architecture be characterized relative to these modes of action, and iii) how can these effects be explored and exploited? The roles of plant/canopy architecture on inoculum interception, on epidemic development via the microclimate and on tissue receptivity are discussed. In addition, the concepts of disease avoidance, canopy porosity and an ideotype unfavourable for disease development are described. This paper shows that many advances have already been made, but progress is still required in four main fields: microclimatology, mathematical modelling of plants, molecular genetics and ideotype conception.
European Journal of Plant Pathology 135(3). · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rain-splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa (syn. Guignardia citricarpa) conidia (pycnidiospores) from infected oranges was studied in still air and combined with wind. High power microscopy demonstrated the presence of conidia in splash droplets from diseased oranges, which exuded conidia for over one hour during repeated wetting. The largest (5 mm) incident drops produced the highest splashes (up to 41.0 cm). A linear-by-quadratic surface model predicted highest splashes to be 41.91 cm at a horizontal distance of 25.97 cm from the target orange. Large splash droplets contained most conidia (4-5.5 mm splashes averaged 308 conidia), but were splashed <30 cm horizontal distance. Most (80-90%) splashes were <1 mm diameter but carried only 0-4 conidia per droplet. In multiple splash experiments, splashes combined to reach higher maxima (up to 61.7 cm; linear-by-quadratic surface model prediction, 62.1 cm) than in the single splash experiments. In combination with wind, higher wind speeds carried an increasing proportion of splashes downwind travelling horizontally at least 8 m at the highest wind speed tested (7 m/s), due to a small proportion of droplets (<1 mm) being aerosolised. These experiments suggest that P. citricarpa conidia can be dispersed from infected oranges by splashes of water in rainfall events.
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