Adolescent and young adult HPV vaccination in Australia: achievements and challenges.

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, The Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.93). 10/2011; 53 Suppl 1:S29-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.08.015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Australia commenced an ongoing school based government funded human papillomaviruses (HPV) (cervical cancer prevention) vaccination program in April 2007 for adolescent females aged 12-13 years. In addition, up to December 31, 2009, a catch-up program for young females 13-26 years of age was offered: a school-based vaccination program was used to offer HPV vaccine to girls enrolled in school (14-17 years), and general practitioners or other community health provider offered vaccine to young women aged 18-26 years. To date, only the quadrivalent vaccine (HPV 6/11/16/18) has been utilized in the funded program. Acceptance of the vaccine is high with coverage of 3 doses of the HPV vaccine in the school age cohort around 70%, and just over 30% in the older age cohort. Since the vaccination program was initiated, a reduction in new cases of genital warts of 73% among vaccine eligible age females has been evidenced in STI clinics across Australia. A reduction of 44% of new cases in young males (not a part of the free program) was also documented during this same time period, suggesting significant herd immunity. Similarly, in the state of Victoria, a small but significant decrease in high grade abnormalities in Pap screening findings has been reported in young women<18 years for the period 2007-9, as compared to pre-vaccination. Challenges for the future include how we can sustain and improve HPV vaccination coverage in young Australian women, while maintaining cervical cancer screening participation and reviewing cervical cancer screening methods.

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    ABSTRACT: Since 2007, many countries have implemented national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs with the quadrivalent HPV (4HPV) vaccine that has been shown to be efficacious in clinical trials involving 25,000 subjects. Two vaccine serotypes, HPV16 and 18, are responsible for cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers, but the impact of the 4HPV vaccine on these cancers cannot be seen immediately as there is a considerable lag between infection with HPV and cancer development. The other two serotypes, HPV6 and 11, are responsible for genital warts (GWs), which develop within a few months after infection, making GWs an early clinical endpoint for the assessment of the impact of 4HPV vaccination. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed to identify all published studies on 4HPV vaccination, including those that assessed the impact of 4HPV vaccination programs on the incidence of GWs at a population level around the world. A total of 354 records were identified in the PubMed search. After screening and obtaining full papers for 56 publications, 16 publications presenting data on the impact or effectiveness of 4HPV vaccination on GWs were identified. These reported data on the impact or effectiveness of 4HPV in six countries [Australia (n = 6), New Zealand (n = 2), United States (n = 3), Denmark (n = 2), Germany (n = 1), and Sweden (n = 2)]. In Australia, no GWs were diagnosed in women aged <21 years who reported being vaccinated. A 92.6% reduction in GWs incidence was reported for all women in this age group, where the vaccine uptake rate (VUR) was 70% for 3 doses. The highest reductions were reported in countries with high VURs, mostly through school-based vaccination programs, although high VURs were obtained with some non-school-based programs. The results are coherent with the GWs incidence reduction reported in clinical trials and are an early indicator of what can be expected for the long-term clinical impact on vaccine-type HPV-related cancers.
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    ABSTRACT: Two prophylactic vaccines against HPV16 and 18 infections are commercially available. Published clinical trials with these HPV vaccines report their use in protection against cervical CIN2+ if girls are vaccinated before their sexual debut. Even though HPV 16 and 18 cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer and an almost 100% of effectiveness would be expected against these cancers, other types may frequently cause cervical cancers in aged women > 50 years. Serious adverse events of the vaccine are a matter of public concern in Japan despite a low incidence rate. After the current vaccines have been implemented world-wide, cervical cancer screening must be undertaken with special attention to changing HPV types and age distribution of patients with cervical cancer.

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