Prior to 2009, UK public funding was mainly only available for children to receive unilateral cochlear implants. In 2009, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) published guidance for cochlear implantation following their review. According to these guidelines, all suitable children are eligible to have simultaneous bilateral cochlear implants or a sequential bilateral cochlear implant if they had received the first before the guidelines were published. NICE stated that they would review this decision in 2011. In preparation for this review, 13 UK cochlear implant centres formed a consortium, and the decision was made to carry out a multi-centre audit. The audit involves collecting data from simultaneously and sequentially implanted children at three intervals: before bilateral cochlear implants or before the sequential implant, 1 year after bilateral implants, and 2 years after bilateral implants. The measures include localization, speech recognition in quiet and background noise, speech production, listening, vocabulary, parental perception, quality of life, and surgical data including complications. The audit has now passed the 1-year point, and data have been received on more than 400 children. Preliminary results will be available a year later.
"Thus, bilateral implantation in adults was not considered cost-effective in the UK and, at the moment, is not funded by its public healthcare system. However, bilateral implantation was recently approved for children [Cullington et al., 2011]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this prospective study the outcome of the Digisonic® SP Binaural cochlear implant (CI), a device enabling electric stimulation of both cochleae by a single receiver, was evaluated in 14 postlingually deafened adults after 12 months of use. Speech perception was tested using French disyllabic words in quiet and in speech-shaped noise at +10 dB signal-to-noise ratio. Horizontal sound localization in quiet was tested using pink noise coming from 5 loudspeakers, from -90 to +90° along the azimuth. Speech scores in quiet were 76% (±19.5 SD) in the bilateral condition, 62% (±24 SD) for the better ear alone and 43.5% (±27 SD) for the poorer ear alone. Speech scores in noise were 60% (±27.5 SD), 46% (±28 SD) and 28% (±25 SD), respectively, in the same conditions. Statistical analysis showed a significant advantage of the bilateral use in quiet and in noise (p < 0.05 compared to the better ear). Significant spatial perception benefits such as summation effect (p < 0.05), head shadow effect (p < 0.0001) and squelch effect (p < 0.0005) were noted. Sound localization accuracy improved significantly when using the device in the bilateral condition with an average root mean square of 35°. Compared with published outcomes of usual bilateral cochlear implantation, this device could be a valuable alternative to two CIs. Prospective controlled trials, comparing the Digisonic SP Binaural CI with a standard bilateral cochlear implantation are mandatory to evaluate their respective advantages and cost-effectiveness.
Audiology and Neurotology 05/2012; 17(4):256-66. DOI:10.1159/000338472 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the sound localisation ability in children with sequential bilateral cochlear implants and the potential influence of age at the time of the first implantation, years of experience with the first implanted ear and the inter-implant interval (time between the first and the second cochlear implantation).
Sixty-three prelingually deaf children (mean age, 11.03; range, 6.5-17 years; SD, 3.09) were tested after 12 and 24 months of using bilateral cochlear implants. Every child was tested with each ear alone and both ears together. Five loudspeakers were placed in a 180° horizontal arch with 45° of separation between each loudspeaker. The child was placed 1.5m from the speakers. For each test run, three stimuli were presented at 65dB (A) from each speaker for a total of 15 stimulus presentations. For each test run, we calculated the mean angular error (MAE) and the proportion of correct speakers identified (CSS: correct speaker score). Performance by chance for the MAE was 72° and for the CSS was 20% (1 of 5 speakers).
After 12 months of using bilateral CIs, the added effect of the second CI in the MAE was minor, and there was no significant difference in CSS between listening in the unilateral condition and listening in bilateral condition. After 24 months, however, the added effect of the second CI in the MAE was significant (mean diff=12.2°; 95% CI; 4.5-20.0°, p=0.003). The mean bilateral CSS increased significantly to 38% (diff=7.7%; 95% CI; 1.4-14.0%; p=0.019) while the mean unilateral CSS remained at a similar level (27%). The influence of age at the time of the first implantation on CSS after 24 months was not significant (p=0.96). However, the inter-implant interval showed a significant decrease in score by 1.4% per year between the two implants (p=0.04).
Sound localisation with two versus one CI in children with a sequential bilateral cochlear implantation was significantly improved 24 months (but not 12 months) after the second implantation. A shorter inter-implant interval showed a small but significant beneficial effect on sound localisation.
International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 06/2012; 76(9):1245-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2012.05.013 · 1.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The Toy Discrimination Test measures children's ability to discriminate spoken words. Previous assessments of reliability tested children with normal hearing or mild hearing impairment, and most studies used a version of the test without a masking sound. We assessed test-retest reliability for children with hearing impairment using maskers of broadband noise and two-talker babble. Design: Stimuli were presented from a loudspeaker. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was varied adaptively to estimate the speech-reception threshold (SRT) corresponding to 70.7% correct performance. Participants completed each masked condition twice. Study sample: Fifty-five children with permanent hearing impairment participated, aged 3.0 to 6.3 years. Thirty-four children used acoustic hearing aids; 21 children used cochlear implants. Results: For the noise masker, the within-subject standard deviation of SRTs was 2.4 dB, and the correlation between first and second SRT was + 0.73. For the babble masker, corresponding values were 2.7 dB and + 0.60. Reliability was similar for children with hearing aids and children with cochlear implants. Conclusions: The results can inform the interpretation of scores from individual children. If a child completes a condition twice in different listening situations (e.g. aided and unaided), a difference between scores ≥ 7.5 dB would be statistically significant (p <.05).
International journal of audiology 03/2013; 52(6). DOI:10.3109/14992027.2013.769064 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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