Genetic insight and therapeutic targets in squamous-cell lung cancer.
ABSTRACT Squamous-cell lung cancer is one of the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer worldwide and its pathogenesis is closely linked with tobacco exposure. Unfortunately, squamous-cell lung cancer patients do not benefit from major advances in the development of targeted therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors that show exquisite activity in lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations or echinoderm microtubule associated protein like-4 (EML4)-ALK fusions, respectively. Major efforts have been launched to characterize the genomes of squamous-cell lung cancers. Among the new results emanating from these efforts are amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene and mutations of the discoidin domain receptor 2 gene as potential novel targets for the treatment of squamous-cell lung cancer patients. Here, we provide a review on these discoveries and their implications for clinical trials in squamous-cell lung cancer assessing the value of novel therapeutics addressing these targets.Oncogene advance online publication, 23 January 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2011.640.