HIV and health systems: research to bridge the divide.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.39). 08/2011; 57 Suppl 2:S120-3. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31821e8de4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Concern that HIV programs in low-income countries may strain weak health systems and undermine achievement of other priority health goals has resulted in a research agenda focused on measuring the effects of past HIV investments on non-HIV services and outcomes. However, this research has limited value for informing future health policies and programs, which increasingly view health systems as the common platform for delivery of HIV and other health services. These policies reflect a shift in the framing of HIV care and treatment from emergency response to routine health service. In this paradigm, relevant areas for research are strengthening, scaling, and sustaining health systems in low-income countries to reduce all-cause mortality and morbidity, including deaths from HIV. To build an evidence base to support current and future health systems and policy, researchers need to move from retrospective studies to prospective research and adopt innovative study designs and analytic methods.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: : In this special 2014 issue of JAIDS, international investigator teams review a host of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) that are often reported among people living and aging with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. With the longer lifespans that antiretroviral therapy programs have made possible, NCDs are occurring due to a mix of chronic immune activation, medication side effects, coinfections, and the aging process itself. Cancer; cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases; metabolic, body, and bone disorders; gastrointestinal, hepatic, and nutritional aspects; mental, neurological, and substance use disorders; and renal and genitourinary diseases are discussed. Cost-effectiveness, key research methods, and issues of special importance in Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean are also addressed. In this introduction, we present some of the challenges and opportunities for addressing HIV and NCD comorbidities in low- and middle-income countries, and preview the research agenda that emerges from the articles that follow.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 09/2014; 67 Suppl 1:S2-7.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV programs in lower-income countries have provided lifesaving care and treatment to millions of people, but their expansion has raised concerns that these programs may have diverted health workers, management attention, and infrastructure investments from other health priorities, such as high maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed the effect of HIV programs supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) on maternal health services for women not infected with HIV in 257 health facilities in eight African countries in 2007-11. Controlling for other variables, we found that having more patients on antiretroviral treatment and HIV-related infrastructure investments, such as on-site laboratories at health clinics, were associated with more deliveries at health facilities by women not infected with HIV. This association is consistent with the hypothesis that PEPFAR-funded infrastructure may also support other health services and that the program may have laid the foundation for improving health system performance in maternal health overall. We recommend that lessons learned from the rapid expansion of HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa should be drawn on to increase the provision of maternal and newborn health care and other high-priority health services, such as the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and other chronic, noncommunicable diseases.
    Health Affairs 07/2012; 31(7):1478-88. · 4.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence demonstrates that scale-up of HIV services has produced stronger health systems and, conversely, that stronger health systems were critical to the success of the HIV scale-up. Increased access to and effectiveness of HIV treatment and care programs, attention to long-term sustainability, and recognition of the importance of national governance, and country ownership of HIV programs have resulted in an increased focus on structures that compromise the broader health system. Based on a review published literature and expert opinion, the article proposes 4 key health systems strengthening issues as a means to promote sustainability and country ownership of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and other global health initiatives. First, development partners need provide capacity building support and to recognize and align resources with national government health strategies and operational plans. Second, investments in human capital, particularly human resources for health, need to be guided by national institutions and supported to ensure the training and retention of skilled, qualified, and relevant health care providers. Third, a range of financing strategies, both new resources and improved efficiencies, need to be pursued as a means to create more fiscal space to ensure sustainable and self-reliant systems. Finally, service delivery models must adjust to recent advancements in areas of HIV prevention and treatment and aim to establish evidence-based delivery models to reduce HIV transmission rates and the overall burden of disease. The article concludes that there needs to be ongoing efforts to identify and implement strategic health systems strengthening interventions and address the inherent tension and debate over investments in health systems.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 08/2012; 60 Suppl 3:S113-9. · 4.39 Impact Factor