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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this population-based study was to examine the impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy on the risk of local recurrence in patients with invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC). The population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry was used to select all patients with ILC, who underwent mastectomy in five general hospitals in the southern part of the Netherlands between 1995 and 2002. Of the 499 patients 383 patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Of these patients, 170 (44.4%) had received postmastectomy radiotherapy. The median follow-up was 7.2 years. Fourteen patients (3.7%) were lost to follow-up. During follow-up 22 patients developed a local recurrence, of whom 4 had received postmastectomy radiotherapy. The 5-year actuarial risk of local recurrence was 2.1% for the patients with and 8.7% for the patients without postmastectomy radiotherapy. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, tumour stage and adjuvant systemic treatment, the patients who underwent postmastectomy radiotherapy were found to have a more than 3 times lower risk of local recurrence compared to the patients without (Hazard Ratio 0.30; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.10-0.89). Local control is excellent for patients with ILC who undergo postmastectomy radiotherapy and significantly better than for patients not receiving radiotherapy.
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 11/2008; 91(1):49-53. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In early breast cancer, variations in local treatment that substantially affect the risk of locoregional recurrence could also affect long-term breast cancer mortality. To examine this relationship, collaborative meta-analyses were undertaken, based on individual patient data, of the relevant randomised trials that began by 1995. Information was available on 42,000 women in 78 randomised treatment comparisons (radiotherapy vs no radiotherapy, 23,500; more vs less surgery, 9300; more surgery vs radiotherapy, 9300). 24 types of local treatment comparison were identified. To help relate the effect on local (ie, locoregional) recurrence to that on breast cancer mortality, these were grouped according to whether or not the 5-year local recurrence risk exceeded 10% (<10%, 17,000 women; >10%, 25,000 women). About three-quarters of the eventual local recurrence risk occurred during the first 5 years. In the comparisons that involved little (<10%) difference in 5-year local recurrence risk there was little difference in 15-year breast cancer mortality. Among the 25,000 women in the comparisons that involved substantial (>10%) differences, however, 5-year local recurrence risks were 7% active versus 26% control (absolute reduction 19%), and 15-year breast cancer mortality risks were 44.6% versus 49.5% (absolute reduction 5.0%, SE 0.8, 2p<0.00001). These 25,000 women included 7300 with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in trials of radiotherapy (generally just to the conserved breast), with 5-year local recurrence risks (mainly in the conserved breast, as most had axillary clearance and node-negative disease) 7% versus 26% (reduction 19%), and 15-year breast cancer mortality risks 30.5% versus 35.9% (reduction 5.4%, SE 1.7, 2p=0.0002; overall mortality reduction 5.3%, SE 1.8, 2p=0.005). They also included 8500 with mastectomy, axillary clearance, and node-positive disease in trials of radiotherapy (generally to the chest wall and regional lymph nodes), with similar absolute gains from radiotherapy; 5-year local recurrence risks (mainly at these sites) 6% versus 23% (reduction 17%), and 15-year breast cancer mortality risks 54.7% versus 60.1% (reduction 5.4%, SE 1.3, 2p=0.0002; overall mortality reduction 4.4%, SE 1.2, 2p=0.0009). Radiotherapy produced similar proportional reductions in local recurrence in all women (irrespective of age or tumour characteristics) and in all major trials of radiotherapy versus not (recent or older; with or without systemic therapy), so large absolute reductions in local recurrence were seen only if the control risk was large. To help assess the life-threatening side-effects of radiotherapy, the trials of radiotherapy versus not were combined with those of radiotherapy versus more surgery. There was, at least with some of the older radiotherapy regimens, a significant excess incidence of contralateral breast cancer (rate ratio 1.18, SE 0.06, 2p=0.002) and a significant excess of non-breast-cancer mortality in irradiated women (rate ratio 1.12, SE 0.04, 2p=0.001). Both were slight during the first 5 years, but continued after year 15. The excess mortality was mainly from heart disease (rate ratio 1.27, SE 0.07, 2p=0.0001) and lung cancer (rate ratio 1.78, SE 0.22, 2p=0.0004). In these trials, avoidance of a local recurrence in the conserved breast after BCS and avoidance of a local recurrence elsewhere (eg, the chest wall or regional nodes) after mastectomy were of comparable relevance to 15-year breast cancer mortality. Differences in local treatment that substantially affect local recurrence rates would, in the hypothetical absence of any other causes of death, avoid about one breast cancer death over the next 15 years for every four local recurrences avoided, and should reduce 15-year overall mortality.
    The Lancet 01/2006; 366(9503):2087-106. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy for early breast cancer can decrease breast cancer mortality but increase other mortality, mainly from heart disease and lung cancer. The mean cardiac dose from irradiation of a left-sided breast cancer can be two or three times that for a right-sided breast cancer. The mean ipsilateral (ie, on the same side as the breast cancer) lung dose can also be two or three times the mean contralateral lung dose. Particularly during the 1970s, when typical heart and lung exposures were greater than now, the laterality of an irradiated breast cancer could measurably affect cardiac mortality and mortality from cancer of the right or the left lung decades later. This study aimed to assess the hazards in the general US population from routine cancer-registry and death-certificate data. We analysed data for 308 861 US women with early breast cancer of known laterality (left-sided or right-sided) who were registered in the US Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registries during 1973-2001 and followed prospectively for cause-specific mortality until Jan 1, 2002. 115 165 (37%) received radiotherapy. Among those who did not, tumour laterality was of little relevance to subsequent mortality. For women diagnosed during 1973-82 and irradiated, the cardiac mortality ratio (left versus right tumour laterality) was 1.20 (95% CI 1.04-1.38) less than 10 years afterwards, 1.42 (1.11-1.82) 10-14 years afterwards, and 1.58 (1.29-1.95) after 15 years or more (trend: 2p=0.03). For women diagnosed during 1983-92 and irradiated, the cardiac mortality ratio was 1.04 (0.91-1.18) less than 10 years afterwards and 1.27 (0.99-1.63) 10 or more years afterwards. For women diagnosed during 1993-2001 and irradiated the cardiac mortality ratio was 0.96 (0.82-1.12), with none yet followed for 10 years. Among women irradiated for breast cancer who subsequently developed an ipsilateral or contralateral lung cancer, the lung cancer mortality ratio (ipsilateral versus contralateral) for women diagnosed during 1973-82 and irradiated was 1.17 (0.62-2.19), 2.00 (1.00-4.00), and 2.71 (1.65-4.48), respectively, less than 10 years, 10-14 years, and 15 or more years afterwards (trend: 2p=0.04). For women irradiated after 1982 there is, as yet, little information on lung cancer risks more than 10 years afterwards. US breast cancer radiotherapy regimens of the 1970s and early 1980s appreciably increased mortality from heart disease and lung cancer 10-20 years afterwards with, as yet, little direct evidence on the hazards after more than 20 years. Since the early 1980s, improvements in radiotherapy planning should have reduced such risks, but the long-term hazards in the general populations of various countries still need to be monitored directly.
    The Lancet Oncology 09/2005; 6(8):557-65. · 25.12 Impact Factor

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