Chapter

Cartilage Calcification

In book: Advanced Topics in Biomineralization
Source: InTech
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    ABSTRACT: The electron-microscopic cytochemical localization of calcium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+-ATPase) was determined in chick epiphyseal growth-plate cartilage. In the reserve zone, mitochondria and lysosomes contained substantial amounts of reaction product, while the plasma membrane and the Golgi complex showed very weak enzymatic activity, and matrix vesicle membranes did not exhibit the cytochemical reaction. As maturation proceeded, the plasma membrane, Golgi complex, and matrix vesicle membranes also stained and were most intense in the proliferative and early hypertrophic zones. From the hypertrophic to the calcifying zone, cytochemical staining decreased progressively in the plasma membrane, the Golgi complex, and lysosomes, while in some cases mitochondrial reaction product remained intense. Matrix vesicles lost their enzymatic activity at the same time that matrix vesicle calcification commenced. It is proposed that this event allows matrix vesicles to calcify, since efflux of calcium would no longer occur.
    Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 10/1985; 33(9):925-32. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix vesicles (MV), microstructures which rapidly accumulate Ca2+ and induce mineral formation in vitro, are linked to type II and X collagens and proteoglycans in the hypertrophic cartilage. However, the roles of these matrix proteins on MV function are not known. This led us to investigate the influence of type II and X collagen binding on Ca2+ uptake by MV. MV isolated from chicken growth plate cartilage were treated with pure bacterial collagenase and 1 M NaCl in synthetic cartilage lymph to selectively and completely remove associated type II and X collagens. Uptake of 45Ca2+ by these collagen-depleted vesicles was markedly reduced. Further treatment with detergent, which disrupted the membrane, restored Ca2+ uptake, indicating that the vesicle membrane structure and the nucleational core inside the vesicle lumen were still intact after the collagenase and 1 M NaCl treatments. Readdition of either native type II or X collagen to the collagenase, 1 M NaCl-treated MV stimulated their Ca2+ uptake to levels similar to those of untreated vesicles. Pepsin-treated type II and X collagens were less effective in stimulating Ca2+ uptake, indicating that non-triple helical domains of these collagens were involved. The pepsin treatment of these collagens also decreased their binding to annexin V (anchorin CII), one of three annexins found in MV, suggesting that annexin V is involved in mediating the binding of type II and X collagens to the MV surface. Furthermore, treatment of collagenase, 1 M NaCl-treated MV with chymotrypsin, which damaged annexin V as well as many other MV proteins, prevented the stimulation of Ca2+ uptake by these collagens. Thus, the interaction between type II and X collagens with MV activates the influx of Ca2+ into MV and may play an important role in calcification of the vesicles.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/1994; 269(15):11462-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While previous studies revealed that matrix vesicles (MV) contain a nucleational core (NC) that converts to apatite when incubated with synthetic cartilage lymph, the initial mineral phase present in MV is not well characterized. This study explored the physicochemical nature of this Ca2+ and Pi-rich NC. MV, isolated from growth plate cartilage, were analyzed directly by solid-state 31P NMR, or incubated with hydrazine or NaOCl to remove organic constituents. Other samples of MV were subjected to sequential treatments with enzymes, salt solutions, and detergents to expose the NC. We examined the NC using transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive analysis with x-rays, and electron and x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, high performance thin-layer chromatographic analysis, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We found that most of the MV proteins and lipids could be removed without destroying the NC; however, NaOCl treatment annihilated its activity. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that annexin V, a phosphatidylserine (PS)-dependent Ca2+-binding protein, was the major protein in the NC; high performance thin-layer chromatographic analysis revealed that the detergents removed the majority of the polar lipids, but left significant free cholesterol and fatty acids, and small but critical amounts of PS. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the NC was composed of clusters of approximately 1.0 nm subunits, which energy-dispersive analysis with x-rays revealed contained Ca and Pi with a Ca/P ratio of 1.06 +/- 0. 01. Electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform-infrared analysis all indicated that the NC was noncrystalline. 1H-Cross-polarization 31P NMR indicated that the solid phase of MV was an HPO42--rich mixture of amorphous calcium phosphate and a complex of PS, Ca2+, and Pi. Taken together, our findings indicate that the NC of MV is composed of an acid-phosphate-rich amorphous calcium phosphate intermixed with PS-Ca2+-Pi, annexin V, and other proteins and lipids.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1997; 272(7):4404-11. · 4.65 Impact Factor

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