Chapter

Oleocanthal: A Naturally Occurring Anti-Inflammatory Agent in Virgin Olive Oil

In book: Olive Oil - Constituents, Quality, Health Properties and Bioconversions
Source: InTech
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    ABSTRACT: The Mediterranean diet is protective against cardiovascular disease; a proposed mechanism is through a reduction in systemic inflammation. It is unknown to what extent the association between the Mediterranean diet and inflammation is due to genetic or other familial factors. We administered the Willett food frequency questionnaire to 345 middle-aged male twins and assessed adherence to the Mediterranean diet using a published adherence score. Fasting plasma levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and known cardiovascular risk factors were measured. Mixed-effect regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between diet score and inflammatory biomarkers after accounting for known cardiovascular risk factors. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced levels of interleukin-6 (P<0.001) but not C-reactive protein (P=0.10) after adjustment for total energy intake, other nutritional factors, known cardiovascular risk factors, and use of supplements and medications. When the overall association of adherence to the diet with interleukin-6 levels was partitioned into between- and within-pair effects, the between-pair effect was not significant (P=0.9) and the within-pair effect was highly significant (P<0.0001). A 1-unit within-pair absolute difference in the diet score was associated with a 9% (95% CI, 4.5 to 13.6) lower interleukin-6 level. Shared environmental and genetic factors are unlikely to play a major role in the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and systemic inflammation. These results support the hypothesis that reduced inflammation is an important mechanism linking Mediterranean diet to reduced cardiovascular risk.
    Circulation 01/2008; 117(2):169-75. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oleocanthal is an olive oil phenolic possessing anti-inflammatory activity. Anecdotal evidence suggests that oleocanthal elicits a stinging sensation felt only at the back of the throat (oropharynx). Due to this compound possessing potentially health-benefiting properties, investigation into the sensory aspects of oleocanthal is warranted to aid in future research. The important link between the perceptual aspects of oleocanthal and health benefits is the notion that variation in sensitivity to oleocanthal irritation may relate to potential differences in sensitivity to the pharmacologic action of this compound. The current study assessed the unique irritant attributes of oleocanthal including its location of irritation, temporal profile, and individual differences in the perceived irritation. We show that the irritation elicited by oleocanthal was localized to the oropharynx (P < 0.001) with little or no irritation in the anterior oral cavity. Peak irritation was perceived 15 s postexposure and lasted over 180 s. Oleocanthal irritation was more variable among individuals compared with the irritation elicited by CO(2) and the sweetness of sucrose. There was no correlation between intensity ratings of oleocanthal and CO(2) and oleocanthal and sucrose (r = -0.15, n = 50, P = 0.92 and r = 0.17, n = 84, P = 0.12, respectively), suggesting that independent mechanisms underlie the irritation of CO(2) and oleocanthal. The unusual spatial localization and independence of acid (CO(2)) sensations suggest that distinct nociceptors for oleocanthal are located in the oropharyngeal region of the oral cavity.
    Chemical Senses 03/2009; 34(4):333-9. · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to quantitatively analyze oleocanthal in extra virgin olive oils. Oleocanthal, a deacetoxy ligstroside aglycone, is known to be responsible for the back of the throat irritation of olive oils and to have probated antiinflamatory activity. Oleocanthal was isolated from small amounts of olive oil sample (1 g) by liquid-liquid extraction. Hexane-acetonitrile was found to be the best solvent system to extract oleocanthal from the oil matrix. The solvent extract was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection at 278 nm. Chromatogaphic separation of oleocanthal from other extracted compounds and of the two geometric isomers of oleocanthal was achieved by an elution gradient with acetonitrile and water. Both the external standard calibration curve and the internal standard calibration curve were established, and quantitation using both calibration curves gave essentially the same result. The reproducibility (RSD = 4.7%), recovery (> 95%), and limit of quantitation (< 1 microg/g) were also determined. Concentrations of oleacanthal in 10 selected throat-burning extra virgin olive oils were determined using the method (ranged from 22 to 190 microg/g) with external standard calibration.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 05/2006; 54(9):3204-8. · 3.11 Impact Factor

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May 29, 2014