Porphyrin Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

In book: Solar Cells - Dye-Sensitized Devices
Source: InTech
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Available from: Matt Griffith, Jun 28, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Co-sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO2 with the organic dye D2 and the zinc phthalocyanine dye TT1 improves light harvesting, Jsc and efficiency of DSC devices. However, the Voc of the co-sensitized cell is markedly inferior ([similar]130 mV) when compared to the reference device made with D2 only. We discuss the implications of our results with regard to selection criteria for dyes for co-sensitized DSCs.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry A 01/2011; DOI:10.1039/C0JM03661G · 7.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a device based study into the operation of liquid electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC's) using organic dyes. We find that, for these systems, it is entirely necessary to employ a compact TiO2 layer between the transparent fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) anode and the electrolyte in order to reduce charge recombination losses. By incorporation of a compact layer, the device efficiency can be increased by over 160% under simulated full sun illumination and more than doubled at lower light intensities. This is strong evidence that the more widely employed ruthenium based sensitizers act as to "insulate" the anode against recombination losses and that many planar organic dyes employed in DSSC's could greatly benefit from the use of a compact TiO2 blocking layer. This is in strong contrast to DSSC's sensitized with ruthenium based systems, where the introduction of compact TiO2 has only marginal effects on conversion efficiencies.
    Nano Letters 05/2008; 8(4):977-81. DOI:10.1021/nl071588b · 12.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have gained widespread interest because of their potential for low-cost solar energy conversion. Currently, the certified record efficiency of these solar cells is 11.1%, and measurements of their durability and stability suggest lifetimes exceeding 10 years under operational conditions. The DSC is a photoelectrochemical system: a monolayer of sensitizing dye is adsorbed onto a mesoporous TiO(2) electrode, and the electrode is sandwiched together with a counter electrode. An electrolyte containing a redox couple fills the gap between the electrodes. The redox couple is a key component of the DSC. The reduced part of the couple regenerates the photo-oxidized dye. The formed oxidized species diffuses to the counter electrode, where it is reduced. The photovoltage of the device depends on the redox couple because it sets the electrochemical potential at the counter electrode. The redox couple also affects the electrochemical potential of the TiO(2) electrode through the recombination kinetics between electrons in TiO(2) and oxidized redox species. This Account focuses on the special properties of the iodide/triiodide (I(-)/I(3)(-)) redox couple in dye-sensitized solar cells. It has been the preferred redox couple since the beginning of DSC development and still yields the most stable and efficient DSCs. Overall, the iodide/triiodide couple has good solubility, does not absorb too much light, has a suitable redox potential, and provides rapid dye regeneration. But what distinguishes I(-)/I(3)(-) from most redox mediators is the very slow recombination kinetics between electrons in TiO(2) and the oxidized part of the redox couple, triiodide. Certain dyes adsorbed at TiO(2) catalyze this recombination reaction, presumably by binding iodine or triiodide. The standard potential of the iodide/triiodide redox couple is 0.35 V (versus the normal hydrogen electrode, NHE), and the oxidation potential of the standard DSC-sensitizer (Ru(dcbpy)(2)(NCS)(2)) is 1.1 V. The driving force for reduction of oxidized dye is therefore as large as 0.75 V. This process leads to the largest internal potential loss in DSC devices. We expect that overall efficiencies above 15% might be achieved if half of this internal potential loss could be gained. The regeneration of oxidized dye with iodide leads to the formation of the diiodide radical (I(2)(-*)). The redox potential of the I(2)(-*)/I(-) couple must therefore be considered when determining the actual driving force for dye regeneration. The formed I(2)(-*) disproportionates to I(3)(-) and I(-), which leads to a large loss in potential energy.
    Accounts of Chemical Research 10/2009; 42(11):1819-26. DOI:10.1021/ar900138m · 24.35 Impact Factor