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    ABSTRACT: CBF-A, CBF-B, and CBF-C together form the heterotrimeric mammalian CCAAT-binding factor, CBF, which binds to DNA to form a CBF-DNA complex. Here we examined the transcription activation function of CBF in an in vitro reconstituted system using the three purified recombinant CBF subunits expressed in Escherichia coli. Two of the subunits, CBF-A and CBF-C, were coexpressed and purified as a CBF-A/CBF-C complex. Addition of the three wild-type recombinant CBF subunits to EL4 cell nuclear extracts depleted of CBF stimulated transcription 5-20-fold from proalpha2(1) collagen promoters and 10-fold from the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat. Two CBF deletion mutants, one containing full-length CBF-A and CBF-C and a CBF-B lacking the NH2-terminal residues 1-224, and the other containing full- length CBF-A and CBF-B and a CBF-C lacking the COOH-terminal residues 114-309, also stimulated transcription from these promoters, but the level of activation was reduced to half that obtained with the full-length CBF subunits. In contrast, a CBF deletion mutant protein containing full-length CBF-A and deleted forms of both CBF-B and CBF-C showed very little transcription activation from these promoters. Hence, this study demonstrates that the heterotrimeric CBF protein consists of two transcription activation domains, one present in CBF-B and the other in CBF-C, and that the two domains act additively in the in vitro assay. The activation domains of both CBF-B and CBF-C, which are rich in glutamine and hydrophobic residues, showed amino acid sequence similarities with each other and with the glutamine-rich activation domain of transcription factor Sp1.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/1996; 271(24):14485-91. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The CCAAT-binding protein NF-Y is involved in the regulation of a variety of eukaryotic genes and is formed in higher eukaryotes by three subunits NF-YA/ B/C. We have characterized NF-Y of the trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni and studied the structure and the function of the SMNF-YA subunit. In this work, we present the cloning and sequence analysis of the B subunit of the parasite factor. SMNF-YB contains the conserved HAP-3 homology domain but the remaining part of the protein was found to be highly divergent from all other species. We demonstrated by transfections of GAL4 fusion constructs, that mouse NF-YB does not contain activation domains while the C-terminal part of SMNF-YB has transcriptional activation potential. On the other hand, the N-terminal parts of SMNF-YA and mouse NF-YA were shown to mediate transactivation; the integrity of a large 160 amino acid glutamine-rich domain of NF-YA was required for this function and an adjacent serine-and threonine-rich domain was necessary for full activity in HepG2, but redundant in other cell types. Transactivation domains identified in SMNF-YB are also rich in serine and threonine residues. Our results indicate that serine/threonine-rich sequences from helminth parasites potentiate trans-cription and that such structures have diverged during evolution within the same transcription factor.
    Nucleic Acids Research 01/1998; 26:3800-3805. · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1) plays vital roles in the regulation of seed maturation in Arabidopsis. LEC1 encodes a homolog of yeast HAP3 or mammalian NF-YB/CBF-A subunit of trimeric CCAAT binding factor (CBF). Among the nine paralogs of NF-YB in Arabidopsis, LEC1-LIKE (L1L) is most closely related to LEC1, and can complement the lec1 mutation when expressed under the control of the LEC1 promoter. Although the nature of the B3-type seed maturation regulators as transcription factors have been investigated, knowledge of the molecular action of LEC1 is limited. When co-expressed with NF-YC2 in the presence of ABA, we found that LEC1 or L1L, but not other NF-YBs, activated the promoter of CRUCIFERIN C (CRC), which encodes a seed storage protein. However, additional expression of an NF-YA subunit interfered with the activation. The LEC1/L1L-[NF-YC2] activation depended on ABA-response elements present in the promoter, which led to the finding that LEC1/L1L-[NF-YC2] can strongly activate the CRC promoter in the absence of ABA when co-expressed with a seed-specific ABA-response element (ABRE)-binding factor, bZIP67. Functional coupling of LEC1/L1L-[AtNF-YC2] and bZIP67 was also observed in the regulation of sucrose synthase 2 (SUS2). Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that L1L and bZIP67 formed a protein complex in vivo. These results demonstrate a novel plant-specific mechanism for NF-Y subunit function that enables LEC1 and L1L to regulate a defined developmental network.
    The Plant Journal 03/2009; 58(5):843-56. · 6.58 Impact Factor

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