Influenza-Associated Pneumonia Among Hospitalized Patients With 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus-United States, 2009

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 03/2012; 54(9):1221-9. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis197
Source: PubMed


Pneumonia was a common complication among hospitalized patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 [pH1N1] in the United States in 2009.
Through 2 national case series conducted during spring and fall of 2009, medical records were reviewed. A pneumonia case was defined as a hospitalized person with laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 virus and a chest radiographic report consistent with pneumonia based on agreement among 3 physicians.
Of 451 patients with chest radiographs performed, 195 (43%) had pneumonia (spring, 106 of 237 [45%]; fall, 89 of 214 [42%]). Compared with 256 patients without pneumonia, these 195 patients with pneumonia were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (52% vs 16%), have acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; 26% vs 2%), have sepsis (18% vs 3%), and die (17% vs 2%; P < .0001). One hundred eighteen (61%) of the patients with pneumonia had ≥1 underlying condition. Bacterial infections were reported in 13 patients with pneumonia and 2 patients without pneumonia. Patients with pneumonia, when compared with patients without pneumonia, were equally likely to receive influenza antiviral agents (78% vs 79%) but less likely to receive antiviral agents within ≤2 days of illness onset (28% vs 50%; P < .0001).
Hospitalized patients with pH1N1 and pneumonia were at risk for severe outcomes including ARDS, sepsis, and death; antiviral treatment was often delayed. In the absence of accurate pneumonia diagnostics, patients hospitalized with suspected influenza and lung infiltrates on chest radiography should receive early and aggressive treatment with antibiotics and influenza antiviral agents.

12 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Shortly after the advent of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the avian influenza, the emergence of the influenza A(H1N1)2009 pandemic caused significant vibrations to the public health authorities and stressed the health systems worldwide. We sought to investigate whether this experience has altered our knowledge and our current and future practice on the management of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and community-acquired pneumonia. A changing epidemiology was demonstrated, with obesity and pregnancy beyond established risk groups for influenza A, other clinical syndromes beyond primary viral pneumonia, possible coinfections by other viral beyond bacterial pathogens and a disappointing performance of all available severity assessment tools. On the treatment topic, accumulating evidence suggesting worse outcomes argues against the use of corticosteroids, but some noninvasive ventilating modalities require further assessment. The recent influenza A(H1N1)2009 pandemic has highlighted our weaknesses relating to the diagnosis and assessment of severity of SARI, compromising early treatment and ultimate outcomes; further research based on this experience will help to improve prognosis and boost our future preparedness. An important message is the necessity of international collaboration for the rapid dissemination of locally acquired knowledge.
    Current opinion in critical care 07/2012; 18(5):441-50. DOI:10.1097/MCC.0b013e32835605f2 · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 killed approximately 50 million people. The unusually severe morbidity and mortality associated with the pandemic spurred physicians and scientists to isolate the etiologic agent, but the virus was not isolated in 1918. In 1996, it became possible to recover and sequence highly degraded fragments of influenza viral RNA retained in preserved tissues from several 1918 victims. These viral RNA sequences eventually permitted reconstruction of the complete 1918 virus, which has yielded, almost a century after the deaths of its victims, novel insights into influenza virus biology and pathogenesis and has provided important information about how to prevent and control future pandemics.
    mBio 08/2012; 3(5). DOI:10.1128/mBio.00201-12 · 6.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Characteristics of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to pandemic influenza A 2009 (H1N1) have been inadequately compared to CAP caused by other respiratory pathogens. The performance of prediction rules for CAP during an epidemic with a new infectious agent are unknown. Prospective, population-based study from November 2008-November 2009, in centers representing 70% of hospital beds in Iceland. Patients admitted with CAP underwent evaluation and etiologic testing, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for influenza. Data on influenza-like illness in the community and overall hospital admissions were collected. Clinical and laboratory data, including pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65 of patients with CAP due to H1N1 were compared to those caused by other agents. Of 338 consecutive and eligible patients 313 (93%) were enrolled. During the pandemic peak, influenza A 2009 (H1N1) patients constituted 38% of admissions due to CAP. These patients were younger, more dyspnoeic and more frequently reported hemoptysis. They had significantly lower severity scores than other patients with CAP (1.23 vs. 1.61, P = .02 for CURB-65, 2.05 vs. 2.87 for PSI, P<.001) and were more likely to require intensive care admission (41% vs. 5%, P<.001) and receive mechanical ventilation (14% vs. 2%, P = .01). Bacterial co-infection was detected in 23% of influenza A 2009 (H1N1) patients with CAP. Clinical characteristics of CAP caused by influenza A 2009 (H1N1) differ markedly from CAP caused by other etiologic agents. Commonly used CAP prediction rules often failed to predict admissions to intensive care or need for assisted ventilation in CAP caused by the influenza A 2009 (H1N1) virus, underscoring the importance of clinical acumen under these circumstances.
    PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e46816. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0046816 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Show more


12 Reads