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Available from: Mario Tumbarello, Dec 19, 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Infections due to multidrug-resistant pathogens have an increasing impact on patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Preoperative infections, such as endocarditis, and postoperative infections, including wound and device infection, influence patient outcomes. Special interest needs to be taken in patients admitted to cardiac surgical intensive care units, as these patients are at high risk for infections, particularly nosocomial pneumonia, catheter-related and wound infections. The increasing numbers of infections due to Gram-positive multidrug-resistant pathogens underline the necessity for newer antibiotics with bactericidal effects and a more favorable profile of side effects. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antimicrobial agent with bactericide activity against Gram-positive organisms, has been successfully used in the treatment of complicated infections due to Gram-positive multidrug-resistant pathogens, especially regarding endocarditis, wound infections, device and catheter-related infections in intensive care units. In this review, the authors will summarize therapeutic potential of daptomycin in cardiac surgery and postoperative intensive care.
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    ABSTRACT: Small colony variants (SCVs) are subpopulations of a bacterial strain that differ in morphology, growth rate, metabolism, and antibiotic sensitivity from the parent line. They are associated with chronic and difficult-to-treat infections. SCV endocarditis is very rare and usually associated with intracardiac devices. Herein, we report a case of endocarditis caused by SCV-forming Enterococcus faecalis that affected the native heart without any known predisposition.
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    ABSTRACT: Infection of implantable cardiac electronic devices in particular lead endocarditis (cardiac device infective endocarditis (CDIE)) is an emerging problem with significant morbidity, mortality and health care costs. The epidemiology is characterised with advanced age and health care association in cases presenting within 6 months of implantation. Risk factors include those of the patient, the procedure and the device. Staphylococcal species predominate as the causative organisms. Diagnosis is reliably made by blood cultures and transesophageal echocardiography. Complications include pulmonary and systemic emboli, persistent bacteremia and concomitant valvular involvement. Management includes complete device removal and prolonged antimicrobial therapy. With long-term follow-up to 1 year, the mortality of CDIE is as high as 23 %. It is associated with patient co-morbidities and concomitant valvular involvement and may be prevented by device removal during index admission.
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